Crop Explorer - Production Briefs - Europe


Dec 9 2016 | Hungary Corn: Yield Reaches Record Due to Favorable Weather
USDA estimates Hungary’s 2016/17 corn production at a bumper 9.0 million metric tons (mmt), 0.9 mmt above last month, and 2.5 mmt above 2015/16. Estimated production is 27 percent above the 5-year average. Area is estimated at 1.1 million hectares, unchanged from last month and the lowest since 2010/11. Yield is estimated at a record 8.26 metric tons per hectare, up 10 percent from last month, 45 percent above last year, and 40 percent above the 5-year average.

Oct 12 2016 | France Corn: Summer Dryness Cuts Crop for Second Consecutive Year
USDA estimates corn 2016/17 France production at 12.5 million metric tons (mmt), 1.0 mmt below last month, and 1.2 mmt below 2015/16. The estimated harvest is 20 percent below the 5- year average. Area is estimated at 1.5 million hectares, the lowest in ten years. Yield is estimated at 8.12 metric tons per hectare, down 6 percent from last month, 8 percent below last year, and 9 percent below the 5-year average.

Mar 9 2016 | Lithuania Wheat: Record Area Drives Estimated Production to All-Time High
USDA estimates 2015/16 Lithuania wheat production at 4.4 million metric tons (mmt), 0.48 million or 12 percent higher than last month, and 1.1 mmt or 36 percent higher than the revised 2014/15 estimate. Area is estimated at 0.84 million hectares (mha), up 0.12 mha or 17 percent from last month and up 0.13 mha or 18 percent from last year. Yield is estimated at 5.24 metric tons per hectare (mt/ha) compared to 5.45 mt/ha last month, 4.56 mt/ha last year and 4.11 mt/ha for the 5-year average. Lithuania is one of the 28 member states of the European Union (EU). USDA estimates total 2015/16 EU wheat production at 158.5 mmt from 26.8 mha.

Dec 10 2014 | France Corn: Record Crop Increased
USDA estimates France’s 2014/15 corn production at a record 17.4 million tons, up 0.4 million tons or 2.4 percent from last month, and 18.4 percent from last year. Area was revised to 1.775 million hectares, up 0.025 million or 1.4 percent from last month. Yield was increased 0.9 percent from last month to 9.8 tons per hectare (MT/Ha), compared to last year’s 8.38 MT/Ha.

Jul 11 2014 | Spain Barley: Drought-Related Impacts Reduce Production
USDA estimates barley production in Spain at 7.0 million tons, down 1.2 million or 15 percent from last month, and down 3.1 million or 30 percent from last year. Area is estimated at 2.8 million hectares, practically unchanged from both last month and last year. Yield is estimated at 2.54 tons per hectare (MT/Ha) compared to 2.96 MT/Ha last month and the 2.83 MT/Ha 5-year average. Spain is typically the EU’s third largest barley producer after France and Germany. Its crop is rainfed and therefore dependent on seasonal rainfall. Significant dryness occurred during April and May, however, with crops receiving only half their normal spring rainfall totals. High temperatures further diminished soil moisture, stressing plants during critical development months, resulting in yield loss. Improved conditions in many central and east European countries such as Germany, Romania, Hungary and Lithuania offset Spain’s negative influence on barley production in the European Union (EU). Overall estimated production for 2014/15 EU barley remains unchanged from last month at 55.9 million tons, which is 3.7 million tons or 6.3 percent below last year’s harvest.

Nov 8 2013 | Spain Barley: Record Yield Boosts Production to Bumper Level
Barley production for Spain in 2013/14 is estimated at 9.8 million tons compared to the September estimate of 9.25 million and 5.98 million last year. The bumper crop is 19 percent above the 5-year average of 8.2 million tons. Estimated area remains unchanged from the September estimate at 2.7 million hectares, and is virtually unchanged from last year’s rounded estimate of 2.7 million hectares. Yield is estimated at a record 3.61 tons per hectare. Yield increased from 3.41 tons in September, 2.23 tons last year and spiking 30 percent above the fiveyear average of 2.78 tons.

Oct 11 2012 | United Kingdom Wheat: Production Estimate Down Due to Persistent Rainfall
The United Kingdom (UK) wheat production for 2012/13 is estimated at 14.0 million tons, down 0.8 million or 5 percent from last month, and down 1.3 million or 8 percent from last year. Area is estimated at 2.0 million hectares, unchanged from last month, but up 42,000 hectares or 2 percent from last year. Yield is estimated at 6.97 tons per hectare (t/ha) compared to 7.36 t/ha last month and 7.75 t/ha last year. A very wet season in the UK delayed and prolonged the wheat harvest, lowering both quality and yield. The excessive precipitation during late summer and early autumn saturated soils and prevented fieldwork. When a window of drier weather opened in early September, farmers initially had to choose between harvesting wheat or sowing the early-planted crop of rapeseed. During the first half of September the weather remained settle prompting harvest to proceed at a rapid pace. Farmers completed most of the 2012 wheat harvest before rains returned during the second half of September. The frequent precipitation was conducive to disease, and the lack of sunshine during grainfill prevented proper maturation and drying of the crop. Sandy soils which drain quickly provided the best conditions for wheat this year, but much of the UK’s arable land consists of heavy soils. The UK is consistently the third largest European Union (EU) wheat producer behind France and Germany, contributing 14.9 million tons on a 5-year average or about 11 percent of the total EU crop. (For more information, please contact Bryan Purcell at 202-690-0138.)

Jun 12 2012 | Spain Barley: Production Lowered as Dryness Spreads North
The USDA estimates 2012/13 Spain barley production at 6.5 million tons, down 0.6 million tons from last month, down 1.8 million tons from last year, and down 2.8 million from the 5-year average. Area is estimated at 2.7 million hectares, nearly the same as last month (2.74) and the same as last year (2.70). Yield is estimated at 2.41 tons per hectare (t/ha), down from 2.60 t/ha last month, and from 3.09 t/ha last year.Dryness prevailed in Spain, particularly in the south, during the autumn of 2011 and winter of 2012. Durum wheat has been hit exceptionally hard because the crop is concentrated in the southern most province of Andalucía. The two largest barley-producing regions in Spain are Castilla Y Leon in the north and Castilla La Mancha in the center-south. Recent dryness and high temperatures during grainfill in early May lowered estimated barley yields in Castilla y Leon. The reduced June production estimate is largely in recognition of these lowered yields in Castilla y Leon. (For more information, contact Bryan Purcell at 202-690-0138.)

Sep 11 2009 | EU-27: Wheat Production Revised Upward Due to Higher Output in France
The USDA estimates European Union (EU) wheat production for 2009/10 at 138.5 million tons,down 12.8 million or 8 percent from last year's record crop, but above the five-year average of135.2 million tons. Area is estimated at 25.6 million hectares, down 0.3 million hectares or 1percent from last month and down 1.1 million from last year. Yield is estimated at 5.41 tons perhectare, below last year's record 5.67 tons per hectare but above the five-year average of 5.29ton per hectare. The latest EU harvest reports indicate an increase in France of 1.6 million tonsover last month, to 39.4 million (compared to 39.0 million last year). The crop benefitted fromlate-season rainfall, which occurred during the grain-fill stage of wheat development, increasingkernel size and improving yields. Meanwhile, Germany's crop was lowered 1.4 million tons to25.1 million, based on initial harvest results. This year's German crop is 0.9 million tons belowthe 2008/09 harvest, but remains 1.4 million tons above the five-year-average. Denmark's areawas revised up by 0.15 million hectares, resulting in a 0.9-million-ton increase in production andan estimated record harvest of 5.6 million tons. Smaller changes include a 0.2-million-tonincrease in the Czech Republic, to 4.4 million; a 0.2-million-ton increase in Romania, to 5.5million; and a 0.2-million-decrease in Poland, to 9.2 million. In addition, Spain's crop, which has'suffered from drought throughout the season, was revised up 0.3 million tons, to 5.0 million,compared to the five-year average of 5.9 million ton. (For more information, contact BryanPurcell.

May 9 2008 | Romania Corn Production Recovery Expected
USDA forecasts Romanian corn production to recover from the drought-reduced harvest of 2007/08. Output for 2008/09 is forecast at 8.0 million tons, up 4.1 million tons or 104 percent from last year. Area is estimated at 2.7 million hectares, up 0.1 million hectares or 5 percent. Because of the favorable weather so far this season, yield is expected to return to an average level of 3.0 tons per hectare, nearly twice last year's level. Corn is currently being planted, and final area will hinge in part on the current high prices for fertilizer and the high return for sunflowers this season, which may encourage farmers to substitute sunflowers for corn. (For more information, contact Bryan Purcell at 202-690-0138.)

Feb 26 2007 | Poland: Wheat and Corn Production Falls Further
Estimated production for Polands 2006/07 wheat and corn crops was lowered based on officialgovernment statistics. Harvest results indicate that dryness and high temperatures during late'spring and summer, followed by wet harvest weather, contributed to the reduced output. The2006/07 wheat crop is estimated at 7.1 million tons, down 0.7 million or 9 percent from lastmonth, and down 1.7 million or 19 percent from last year. Area is estimated at 2.2 millionhectares, down 0.1 million from last month but similar to 2005/06. Yield is estimated at 3.23tons per hectare, the lowest since 2000/01.Corn production for the 2006/07 season is estimated at 1.2 million tons, down 0.5 million or 29percent from last month, and down 0.7 million or 38 percent below last year. Area is estimatedto be 0.3 million hectares, down 9 percent from last month and 10 percent from last year. Yieldis estimated at 4.0 tons per hectare, the lowest in over ten years. (For more information, contactBryan Purcell, 202-690-0138).

Dec 12 2006 | Croatia: Corn Production Drops Dramaticall
Croatia corn area in 2006/07 is estimated lower by 100,000 hectares to 300,000 in response to new information reported by the Croatian Bureau of Statistics. The estimated 2006/07 corn production for this non-EU country was also reduced to 1.8 million tons to reflect the change in harvested area. The production decrease represents a 550,000 ton drop from last month. As a result of this year's expected shortfall for meeting domestic consumption, the Agricultural Ministry imposed a 25 percent export duty on corn until March 15, 2007. Furthermore, the government may also reduce or lift the import duty, an action which can only be taken during times of shortages. (For more information, contact Bryan Purcell at 202-690-0138

Sep 12 2006 | Heat and Dryness Strain Italy's Corn Crop
USDA estimates the 2006/07 Italian corn crop at 9.5 million tons, a 1.5 million ton reduction from last month. This year's production is estimated to be 0.3 million tons below last year's drought-reduced crop and 1.5 million tons below the 2004/05 record crop. Harvested area, down 50,000 hectares from last month, is estimated to be 50,000 hectares above last year but 100,000 hectares below the 2004/05 crop. Yield is forecast at 8.64 tons per hectare, well below last year's 9.33 tons per hectare and also below the 5-year average of 9.01 tons per hectare. Italy is typically the European Union's second largest corn producer (after France), with an average contribution of 21- percent of the total.Dryness re-occurred in Italy for the second straight year. This year, rainfall patterns and amounts have been very similar to last season. During both years, adequate, early season moisture tapered off during the beginning of May, and significant rains didn't begin again until August. Last year's yields dropped to a "low" 9.33 tons per hectare. The period from May through July was also accompanied by much above-average temperatures, intensifying soil dryness, stressing vegetation, and increasing demands on limited irrigation supplies.During 2006, cumulative seasonal precipitation in northern Italy's agricultural triangle is two-thirds of normal. Italy's corn crop is primarily (85-90 percent) concentrated in the Po River Valley watershed, in the country's north. Specifically, crops are most intensively irrigated on the north side of the Po River, because the more reliable sources of water are located in the Alps; hence, its tributaries drain from the north of Italy. The land on the southern bank of the Po River is crossed by less reliable and more torrential streams, originating in the lower and drier Apennine Mountains. Irrigation activities throughout Italy must vie for water that is also in high demand by the country's hydroelectric facilities.The remainder of the crop is more rain-fed and dispersed throughout peninsular, central Italy and to a lesser extent in the country's south and on the Italian islands. Because of the extended periods of dryness in recent years, sunflower has been planted in lieu of corn in dry land areas of central Italy. Soybean crops, of relatively minor importance in Italy, compete with corn in the Po Valley. Farms in the Po Valley are very small, with fields averaging 10- 25 hectares, and with the largest averaging about 40-60 hectares. (For more information, contact Bryan Purcell, 202-690-0138.)

Mar 10 2006 | Romania Corn: Higher Precipitation Brings Higher Yield
Romania's corn production for 2005/06 is estimated at 10.3 million tons, up 1.3 million from last month, but down 1.7 million from last year's 12-million-ton crop. Area is estimated at 3 million hectares, unchanged from last month and from last year. The estimated yield of 3.43 tons per hectare is up 14 percent from last month, but down 14 percent from last year. This year's yield is well above the 5-year average of 2.74 tons per hectare. A cool, rainy summer and early fall delayed the 2005/06 summer crop harvest. Initially, there were concerns about excessive precipitation damaging the corn and sunflower crops and delaying the harvest. While it indeed delayed the harvest, the rains slowed during October, allowing fields to dry and harvest activities to resume. Now, industry and government sources believe the crop is larger because the high precipitation totals enhanced yields. (For more information, contact Bryan Purcell at 202-690-0138.)

Oct 1 2004 | Romania: A Bumper Corn Crop Forecast
The USDA estimates Romanian corn production at 12.0 million tons, up 2.0 million from last month and up 5.5 million from last year. The increase is based on a recent agricultural attaché report citing high yield potential for summer crops, based on satellite-derived vegetation indices which indicate much better than normal plant vigor in corn growing areas. Area is estimated at 3.0 million hectares, against 2.6 million last year, and yield at 4.0 tons per hectare, the highest level since 1997/98. Harvest is underway and will likely be complete by the end of October. (For more information, contact Mark Lindeman at 202-690-0143.)

Sep 1 2004 | Romanian Wheat Yield at 15-Year High
Wheat production is estimated at 6.4 million tons, up 1.2 million from last month, but more than triple the 2.0-million-ton crop produced last season. The 2004/05 season has been very favorable for both winter and summer crops in Eastern Europe. The wheat harvest has finished in Romania and the country is now busy accumulating, storing, and counting the much-anticipated bumper crop. This years wheat collection will be one of the largest since the regime change of the early 1990s when inputs were highly subsidized. Yields are estimated to average 3.2 tons/ha, tied with the record 1995/1996 crop (which had a larger planted area). Harvested area is estimated at 2 million hectares, just about average. The crop is significantly better than its 5-year 4.6-million-ton average, but the countrys varied climate rarely produces an average crop. This year, the best yields were recorded on the western plain, but the large Danube Valley in the south also saw high yields. The crop has been substantially raised since last month due to new data obtained from farmers and other in-country sources, during the recent crop travel by the PECAD analyst. The near- ideal seasonal weather for the winter season confirms this record crop. This month, the production estimate is based on a 3.2 ton-per-hectare yield. Final estimates will not be available until late fall. Despite the size of the crop, the only potential downside for this years production might be quality issues related to rains that occurred in some areas during harvesting. In any event, this years large crop was welcomed by producers after last years winter frosts and spring drought devastated the wheat harvest, bringing it down to a record low. In addition, the wheat harvest will soon be followed by another bumper harvest of Romanias leading grain: corn. Again, weather has been nearly ideal with heavy summer rains creating high soil moisture levels. While it is quite rare for both the winter and the spring crops to be so large, plenty of storage (some old and mostly idle) from the Soviet-era days can quickly be readied for whatever is harvested. (For more information, contact Bryan Purcell at 202-690-0138.)

Aug 1 2004 | France: Rapeseed Output Higher Due to Favorable Weather
Rapeseed production in France for 2004/05 is estimated at 3.7 million tons, up 7 percent from last month and up 11 percent from last year. Favorable weather during most of the crop season and during harvest lifted yield to an estimated 3.4 tons per hectare, up 9 percent from last years drought-damaged crop. The French Ministry of Agriculture, in its first estimate, on July 1, forecast yield at 6 percent above average. Winterkill was not a problem with this years crop. The harvest for the current crop is nearing completion. (For more information, contact Paul Provance at 202-720-0881.)

Jul 1 2004 | Romanian Corn Production Up 41 Percent From 2003/04; Yield a Five-Year High
Romanias 2004/05 corn production is estimated at 9.2 million tons, up 1.0 million or 12 percent from last month and up 2.7 million or 41 percent above last years abysmal production. Area is estimated at 3.2 million hectares, up 200,000 or 7 percent from last month and up 600,000 or 23 percent from last year. The estimated 2004/05 yield of 2.88 tons per hectare is the highest in five years, but is far below yields attained during the heavy subsidies and intensive irrigation of the communist era. Corn is Romanias primary summer crop, but the countrys continental climate, with frequent summer dryness and occasional extreme summer heat, can stress and damage this water-sensitive crop. Boom or bust crop seasons are often the result of its irregular yearly precipitation. Romania has three major corn-production zones: Banat in the west, the Danube Plain in the South, and Dobruja in the southeast. All three have enjoyed significant, beneficial precipitation this season, in sharp contrast to last year when Romania suffered through a very dry season. In a region marked by frequent drought, above-average soil moisture at mid-season can provide partial insurance for summer crops. The crumbling irrigation infrastructure, the lack of capital, and poor seed quality have all contributed to keeping a ceiling on yield. Improvement is likely, however, as Romania and Bulgaria anticipate EU integration in 2007. (For more information, contact Bryan Purcell at 202-690-0138.)

Jul 1 2004 | Romania: Beneficial Soil Moisture Boosts Sunseed
Romanias 2004/05 sunflowerseed production is estimated at 1.4 million tons, up 300,000 or 27 percent from last month, and even with last years production. Area is estimated at 1.05 million hectares, unchanged from last month, but down 50,000 or 4.5 percent from last year. The estimated 2004/05 yield of 1.33 tons/ha is the highest since the communist era, when yields were considerably higher due to heavy state subsidies. Yield prospects have improved since last month due to above-average spring and early-summer precipitation, which has increased soil moisture. Sunflowers are Romanias primary source of oilseeds and will likely remain its dominant oilseed crop well into the future. The drought-tolerant plant fares well in Romanias non-irrigated, summer crop regime. The countrys continental climate is marked by occasional severe summer weather events, including dryness and extreme heat, which can damage less drought-resistant crops like corn and soybeans. Soybeans are less popular than sunflowers chiefly because of their sensitivity to dryness at flowering, which makes soybean production a risky endeavor. Additionally, there is a regional preference for the taste of sunflower oil over that of other oils, contributing to its continued dominance. (For more information, contact Bryan Purcell at 202-690-0138.)

Nov 1 2003 | Romania: 2003/04 Wheat Production Estimated Lower
Wheat production in Romania for 2003/04 is at a record low 2.0 million tons, down 0.6 million tons or 23 percent from last month. This seasons total production is down 2.3 million tons or 53 percent from last years weather-affected crop. Area remains unchanged from last month at 1.5 million hectares, but down 700,000 hectares or 32 percent from last year. Yield is estimated to be a 40-year record low at 1.33 tons per hectare. Wheat producers faced a shorter planting window than normal in fall 2002, wedged between an unusually late summer harvest, heavy October rains, and the early onset of winter. These events delayed and may have prevented autumn sowing activities resulting in reduced seeded area. Winter 2003 was harsh with record lows that created high winterkill. A cold spring caused frost damage on re-emerging plants. Finally, the continuous dryness and high temperatures wreaked further havoc on crops during late spring and summer. (For more information, contact Bryan Purcell at 202-690-0138.)

Nov 1 2003 | Hungary: 2003/04 Corn Lowered by Drought
Hungarian corn production is estimated at 4.6 million tons, down 700,000 tons or 13 percent from last month and down 1.4 million or 23 percent from last year. Area is unchanged at 1.0 million hectares. Yield is forecast far below the 5-year average of 5.31 tons per hectare and last years 5.22 tons per hectare. Since Winter 2002, drought has continued to lower expectations for 2003/04. While soil quality is excellent in Hungary, the regions continental climate is largely responsible for wide harvest fluctuations each year. Summer rainfall, as in 2003, can often be scarce and ill-timed. Irrigation is almost non-existent in Hungarys cornfields. The combination of this years low rainfall and high temperatures depleted soil moisture supplies below adequate levels, severely reducing yields. (For more information, contact Bryan Purcell at 202-690-0138.)

Aug 1 2003 | Romania: 2003/04 Wheat Production Falls To New Low; Corn Production Dwindles
Romania wheat production is estimated down 900,000 tons or 26 percent from last month to a meager 2.6 million tons. Harvested area dropped 12 percent or 200,000 hectares since last month to leave the 2003/04 crop at just 1.5 million hectares. This seasons harvest will be a record low; falling well short (40 percent) of last years drought-reduced 4.3 million tons and well below (49 percent) the average of 5.1 million tons. A combination of factors has led to this years record low harvest. A severe winter with low temperatures hovering at -20 °C damaged autumn planted crops. There were also late winter frosts, destructive temperature swings, and a delayed arrival of spring weather. The spring and summer growing season has been punctuated by heat and drought, further lowering yields and quality. Corn production is estimated at 6.5 million tons, down 13 percent or 1.0 million from last month and down 800,000 tons or 11 percent from last years crop. Corn was sown later than usual because of the long winter and ongoing drought persisted in major growing regions from April through June. A recent reprieve with July rains has aided the crop, but more rain will be needed during the first half of August to stabilize yields. Average production is 7.5 million tons. (For more information, contact Bryan Purcell at 202-690-0138)

Nov 1 2002 | Romanian Corn Harvest Higher Due to Late Precipitation
Corn production in Romania is estimated at 7.5 million tons, up 0.5 million or 7 percent from last month and last season. Harvested area, at 2.8 million hectares, remains unchanged from last month, but is down slightly by 100,000 from last season. Although the 2002/03 estimate is considerably below the 8.6 million-ton, 5-year average, corn production is still expected to be 2.7 million tons above the record low, collected during the region-wide drought of 2000/01. During the 2002/03 season Romania experienced a damaging drought during spring and early summer. The drought accelerated plant growth but hindered development. The entrenched, adverse weather pattern finally retreated during the latter half of summer, bringing in moderate and frequent rains. While precipitation arrived too late to benefit much of the severely damaged crops in the west and in the south along the Danube, the August rain induced further development in late-planted corn. The late-arriving precipitation also aided corn development in the less drought-affected regions, where plant stage was not so advanced and the corn plant could still utilize the additional moisture.

Aug 1 2002 | Germany: Rapeseed Output Benefits from Biodiesel
German rapeseed area and production are higher in 2002/03 partly due to investments in its biodiesel industry. Harvested area is estimated up 12 percent from last year at 1.28 million hectares, while production is estimated up 8 percent at 4.5 million tons. Germany sees biodiesel production from rapeseed oil as one way to help meet its obligations under the Kyoto Protocol to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Rapeseed oil or another vegetable oil in the presence of a catalyst can be made to combine with methanol to form methyl-ester and glycerin. Methyl-ester can be used in diesel engines with little or no modification. Methyl-ester is biodegradable, produces fewer sulfur emissions, is less toxic than petrochemical diesel making it less polluting. During 2002, around 200,000 tons of new rapeseed diesel production capacity is due to come on line. Sales by biodiesel fuel producers in Germany are running around 500,000 tons annually, using 1.32 million tons of rapeseed. In Germany, methyl-ester used for transportation receives a 100-percent exclusion from the motor fuel tax to encourage use of the product and development of the biodiesel industry. Additionally, rapeseed can be grown on set-aside land for industrial purposes (mostly biodiesel) without losing Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) set-aside compensation payments. Looking ahead, biodiesel production may get an additional boost if a current proposal before the EU commission is put into effect. The proposal would require 5.75 percent of motor transport fuels to be produced from renewable resources by 2010.

Jun 1 2002 | France: Beneficial Growing Conditions Raise EU Wheat Production Estimate
Frances 2002/03 total wheat crop is estimated at 38.5 million tons, up 0.5 million from the May estimate of 38.0 million. Overall EU wheat production is now forecast at 107.5 million tons, up 15.7 million from last year. The increase is due to excellent growing conditions that should translate into higher yields throughout Frances wheat growing regions. France is the EUs largest wheat producer, but growing conditions have also been favorable in other major EU producers: Germany, the United Kingdom, Italy, and Spain. Harvest will begin in late June in southern Europe and continue through August in the north. Wet weather during harvest could create problems for this crop, but growing conditions thus far have been generally excellent.

Jun 1 2002 | Romania: Drought Reduces Wheat and Corn Production for 2001/02 and 2002/03
Romanias 2001/02 wheat crop was revised down by 1.2 million tons or 15 percent to 6.7 million, reflecting recent information gathered from Romanian sources. Romanian wheat production for 2002/03 is estimated at 5.0 million tons, down 0.5 million or 9 percent from last month, and off 1.7 million or 25 percent from last years newly revised crop estimate. Romanias 2001/02 corn crop also was revised down, by 1.8 million tons. Last seasons poor harvest was the result of severe drought occurring during the 2001/02 summer season (after the wheat harvest), with the most destruction occurring in the southern and south-eastern areas of the country. Romanian corn production for 2002/03 was estimated at 8.0 million tons, down 0.5 million or 6 percent from last month. This months adjustment to the old crop creates a year-to-year increase of 1.0 million tons for 2002/03.

Jun 1 2002 | Hungary: Drought Reduces Wheat and Corn Production
Hungarys wheat production in 2002/03 is estimated at 4.0 million tons, down 0.5 million or 11 percent from last month and down 23 percent or 1.2 million tons from last seasons bumper crop of 5.2 million. The wheat crop grew under a long period of dryness, which has hurt yield prospects. Hungarys wheat harvest averages 4.4 million tons. Hungarys corn production in 2002/03 is estimated at 6.5 million tons, down 0.5 million or 7 percent from last month, and down 1.1 million from last years crop. Area is estimated at 1.2 million hectares, unchanged from last month. Yield is forecast lower due to an extended period of dryness.

May 1 2002 | Romania: Extremely Dry Weather Drops Wheat Production
Romanias wheat production for 2002/03 is forecast at 5.5 million tons, down 2.4 million or 30 percent from last years large crop. Harvested area is estimated at 2.2 million hectares, down 300,000 hectares or 12 percent from last year. Currently, the 2002/03 winter crop has seen little moisture since planting. Crops in the southern (Walachia) and the south-eastern regions (Dobruja) have been hit hard by a drought for over a year now. Yields are expected to be lower in the far western region (Banat) as well, due to a lack of winter and spring rains during planting season.

Apr 1 2002 | Romania: Corn and Wheat Revised Upward; Barley Revised Downward
Romanian corn production for 2001/02 is estimated at 8.8 million tons, up 400,000 tons from last month and up 4.3 million or 96 percent from a year earlier. Production was revised upward from the record low of 4.5 million tons in 2000, but is still 3 percent below the five-year average of 9.1 million. Harvested area was adjusted down 0.1 million hectares to 2.9 million which is still larger than the 2000/01 acreage, at 2.7 million. While corn was devastated in the southeast and along the Danube River from summer drought, better weather prevailed in other areas of the country, pushing up aggregate yields to near average levels. Romanias wheat production for 2001/02 is estimated at 7.9 million tons, up 400,000 tons from last month and up 3.5 million or 80 percent from a year earlier. This increase resulted from an upward revision in acreage at 2.5 million hectares, up 200,000 from last month, based on final government acreage estimates. Romanian barley production for 2001/02 is estimated at 1.1 million tons, down 400,000 tons from last month and up 350,000 tons or 47 percent from 2000s 30-year low. This decrease was based on a downward revision in yields, estimated at 1.93 tons per hectare, offsetting a slightly larger crop acreage estimated at 569,000 hectares.

Apr 1 2002 | France: Wheat and Corn Estimates Revised Downward
Frances 2001/02 total wheat crop is estimated at 31.5 million tons, down 0.5 million from last month and down 6.1 million or 16 percent from a year earlier. The decrease is primarily due to a decline in harvested area, down 45,000 hectares from last month. Wheat is grown throughout France, and nearly all of it is sown during the winter months. The 2001/02 corn crop is also estimated lower at 16.1 million tons, down 0.4 million from last month and down slightly (130,000 tons) from 2000/01. As a result of a downward revision in crop yields, from 8.92 tons per hectare to 8.52, production is estimated lower. This decrease offsets a slight upward revision in crop acreage, resulting in a net decrease in production. Most of the corn in France is grown in the southwest regions of Poitou-Charentes, Aquitaine and Midi-Pyrenees.

Nov 1 2001 | Romania: Corn Production Boosted
Romanian corn production for 2001/02 is estimated at 8.4 million tons, up 1.4 million or 20 percent from last month and up 87 percent from 2000/01, a year that saw a record low production of 4.5 million tons. The increased 2001/02 corn harvest however, still remains below the five-year average of 9.1 million tons. Area is estimated to have remained steady from last month but is up 0.3 million hectares from last season to 3.0 million hectares. The new production estimate can be attributed to several factors. Widespread rains, long absent in much of the primary growing areas of Romania, finally occurred in September, aiding corn in the grain fill stage. Additionally, secondary grain regions in northwestern Romania that border Hungary and Serbia as well as the northeastern region known as Moldavia, received consistent precipitation throughout the growing season. This aided national yields, countering the devastating drought that ravaged the grain-basket region located in the south and east.

Nov 1 2001 | Italy: Corn Production Forecast Falls due to Adverse Weather
Production for 2001/02 is estimated at 10.0 million tons, down 1.0 million tons, or 9 percent from last month, and down slightly from 10.1 million tons last year. Very dry conditions in the last three weeks of August adversely affected the crop in non-irrigated areas, causing 10-15 percent lower yields than last year. Corn harvested area is down more than 7 percent from the previous forecast to 1.1 million hectares, but up nearly 5 percent from last year. The reduction in area from the previous estimate is attributed to planting delays due to excess rain in the spring. Italy produces on average between 9 and 10 million tons of corn annually, making it Western Europes second largest producer of corn after France. The major corn growing region of Italy is the Po River Valley, which is irrigated to a large extent.

Aug 1 2001 | France: Rapeseed Production Hurt by Wet Weather at Harvest
Frances 2001/02 rapeseed crop is estimated at 3.1 million tons, down from the July estimate of 3.5 million. The decrease is due to a lower yield which is down to 2.82 tons per hectare from 3.18 tons per hectare in July. Area remains unchanged at 1.1 million hectares. Dry weather in May and June, and periods of hot temperatures stressed the growing and maturing rapeseed crop. Abnormally wet weather in the latter part of July damaged the mature crop and caused harvest delays. This is the second consecutive year that wet weather has adversely affected the French rapeseed harvest. Production is estimated 14 percent lower than last years 3.6 million tons with yield down 3 percent on 10 percent less area.

Dec 1 2000 | Romania: Corn Production Reduced Further
The 2000/01 corn harvest in Romania is estimated at 4.0 million tons, down 0.5 million, or 11 percent from last month, and down 62 percent from last years bumper crop. Area is estimated at 2.7 million hectares, down 0.3 million from last year. This years corn harvest compares dismally to Romanias five-year average of 10.1 million tons and 3.1 million hectares. The 2000/01 season saw the most severe drought of the last fifty years and it was accompanied by record heat. Detrimental weather was most apparent on crops in the southern and eastern regions, which produced the lowest yields, while the central, northern, and western areas tended to have marginally higher yields.

Nov 1 2000 | Romania: Drought Drops Corn Production Further
Corn production in Romania is estimated at 4.5 million tons, down 1.0 million or 18 percent from last month and down 57 percent from last years 10.5 million ton bumper crop. Area harvested remains unchanged at 2.7 million hectares, the lowest since 1991 (2.6 MHa). This years harvest is Romanias lowest corn crop in USDAs database, dating back to 1960. The 2000/01 season has been harsh throughout the Balkans, but particularly relentless in Romania, where drought has been most intense and high temperatures have set records throughout the growing season. The drought is Romanias worst in fifty years, and possibly the most severe in the last century. The moisture deficiency stunted corn growth, while record heat advanced the crop prematurely. Compounding matters, the country lacks a sufficient irrigation system to mitigate the effects of extreme dryness, and money was tight, limiting farmers fertilizer and herbicide applications.

Nov 1 2000 | Hungary: Corn Production Reduced Because of Drought
The 2000/01 Hungarian corn crop is estimated at 4.5 million tons, down 500,000 or 10 percent from last month, and 36 percent from last years bumper crop of 7.0 million tons. Area was reduced by 100,000 hectares from October to 1.1 million, and is 8 percent below last seasons 1.2 MHa. The harvest should now be complete, and it has become obvious that the summers extreme heat and dryness has severely diminished the corn crop in Hungary. Additionally, due to heat damage and a hay shortage, a considerable amount of the crop has been cut early and will be used as silage.

Sep 1 2000 | Romania: Corn Production Falls to 30-Year Low as Drought Continues
Romanian corn production for 2000/01 is estimated at 5.5 million tons, down from 7.5 million last month, and down from the five-year average of 10.1 million. Corn production has been reduced as a severe drought accompanied by record high temperatures continued to dominate southeast Europe throughout the summer. Cooler weather and some showers did arrive in July, but were quickly replaced by additional heat and dryness in August. Cooler temperatures and some rainfall have recently entered the region but came too late to benefit the mature summer crop. This years drought is probably the harshest that Romania has experienced in the past 50 years, and has reduced corn production to the lowest level in more than thirty years. Temperatures often soared into the upper 30's C, and because of the extreme heat, crops are maturing earlier than normal.

Sep 1 2000 | Hungary: Corn Production Drops from Effects of Drought
Hungarys 2000/01 corn production is estimated at 5.0 million tons, down 0.5 million or 9 percent from last month and down 29 percent from last years bumper crop of 7.0 million. The decrease in production comes despite an upward adjustment in harvested area of 0.1 million hectares. Drought conditions occurred in June, with a brief rainy period in July, after which drought returned in August. Above normal temperatures hurt the crop in June and August while temperatures averaged near normal in July. Any additional rainfall that may be received from here on will not benefit yield because of the crops level of maturity.

Aug 1 2000 | Romania: Wheat Harvest Upped in Face of Drought
Romania wheat production for 2000/01 is estimated at 3.8 million tons, up 0.5 million or 7 percent from last month, but down 1.0 million from last year. The revision is based on preliminary yield data (harvest was nearing completion in early August) and other reports which indicate that the wheat crop will be slightly better than earlier forecast. Drought has prevailed in eastern Europe since last winter, and was particularly severe in eastern and southern Romania.

Aug 1 2000 | Poland: Rye Production Drops on Late Frost and Drought
Poland rye production for 2000/01 is estimated at 4.1 million tons, down 0.5 million or 11 percent from last month and down 1.1 million or 21 percent from last year. The reduced yield estimate is attributed to a late spring frost followed by persistent drought. The hardest-hit growing regions are in the central and eastern provinces. Rye, traditionally cultivated on sandy and less fertile soils, suffered more from the effects of the drought than did crops planted in soils with a higher moisture-holding capacity. Rye yields are forecast to decline by 20-24 percent. Although rains have returned to the northern countries of eastern Europe, including Poland, crops have already suffered significant crop damage.

Jul 1 2000 | Romania: Crops Continue to Suffer from Excessive Heat and Minimal Moisture
Romanias wheat crop is estimated at 3.3 million tons, down 1.2 million from last month and 1.5 million from last year. Area is also down150,000 hectares from last month but unchanged from 1999/2000. The barley crop is forecast down 22 percent to 700,000 tons with an area drop of 13 percent from June. Barley production is down 31 percent from 1999/2000. Corn production is estimated at 7.5 million tons, down 3.0 million from June and 3.0 million from last year. Area is estimated at 2.8 million hectares, down 13 percent from the 3.2 million estimate in June and down 200,000 hectares from 1999/2000. Romanias 2000/01 summer crops continue to wither from the combined effects of a prolonged drought and a searing heat wave with temperatures reaching up to 38o C. Meanwhile, a reduced wheat harvest is underway. The Ministry of Agriculture announced that 40 percent of all crop area is affected by severe drought conditions, particularly in areas along the Danube River in the south. Difficulties began during late winter as a lack of moisture stressed developing fall-planted crops. Between mid-April and early July, barely any rainfall was received and temperatures were significantly and consistently above average. Romanias irrigation system is in disrepair and has been of little benefit.

Feb 1 2000 | Romania: Corn Production Raised
Romanias corn production for 1999/2000 is estimated at 10.5 million tons from 3.0 million hectares. The corn harvest is increased 0.5 million tons from last month and 24 percent over a dismal 1998 corn crop of 8.5 million tons. The 1999/2000 bumper corn harvest was achieved after a disappointing wheat crop earlier in the season. Wheat plantings were hindered by unfavorable weather in the Fall of 1998 then sustained significant damage from rains during spring and particularly at harvest. Land was substituted from wheat to corn and with the beneficial warm, dry weather arriving during late summer, the corn crop did very well. In addition, wheat production is revised down 3 percent from last month to 4.7 million tons based on harvest results. Wheat area only totaled 1.7 million hectares- Romanias second lowest harvested area in thirty years (1992 had 1.5 million).

Dec 1 1999 | BULGARIA: CORN PRODUCTION RAISED
Bulgarian corn production for 1999/2000 is estimated at 1.6 million tons, an increase of 0.5 million from last month, and 33 percent over last year. This would be the best corn harvest since 1992. Harvested area is estimated at 0.4 million hectares, up 4 percent from last month and at last years level. Weather during the crop season was nearly ideal for corn, significantly assisting development and edging up yield. The season brought frequent rains during the critical growing months and ended with warm, dry weather at harvest during September and October. In addition to the beneficial weather, farmers typically planted higher quality seeds which provide better yields. Another positive factor at work was many recent purchases of machinery and equipment that reduced harvest losses.

Nov 1 1999 | ROMANIA: CORN PRODUCTION RISES
The 1999/2000 Romanian corn harvest of 3.0 million hectares is now expected to reach 10.0 million tons, up 1.0 million from last month, and 1.5 million from last year. As of the end of October, the crop was nearly 80 percent harvested. This years corn harvest will be the third largest in the last 10 years, coming in below the 1997 crop of 12.7 million tons. Favorable weather throughout most of the growing season and a warm, dry September boosted yield to 3.33 tons per hectare, up from 2.83 tons last season.

Sep 1 1999 | GERMANY: HARVEST COMPLETED ON RECORD RAPESEED CROP
Germanys completed rapeseed harvest shows an estimated record production of 4.0 million tons, up 14 percent from last months 3.5 million ton estimate and up 22 percent from last years 3.3 million ton harvest. Area was unchanged from last month at a record 1.2 million hectares, but increased 14 percent from last seasons 1.0 million hectares. Estimated yield this season is also a record at 3.48 million tons per hectare, up 7 percent from last years 3.25 yield. Yield estimates were revised upward following information released by the German Ministry of Agriculture and favorable weather during the growing season.

Aug 1 1999 | GERMANY: HARVEST COMPLETED ON RECORD RAPESEED CROP
Germanys completed rapeseed harvest shows an estimated record production of 4.0 million tons, up 14 percent from last months 3.5 million ton estimate and up 22 percent from last years 3.3 million ton harvest. Area was unchanged from last month at a record 1.2 million hectares, but increased 14 percent from last seasons 1.0 million hectares. Estimated yield this season is also a record at 3.48 million tons per hectare, up 7 percent from last years 3.25 yield. Yield estimates were revised upward following information released by the German Ministry of Agriculture and favorable weather during the growing season.

Oct 1 1998 | ROMANIA: CORN PRODUCTION REDUCED DUE TO HOT WEATHER
Romania's corn production is estimated at 7.5 million tons, down 1.2 million from last month and down 41 percent from last year's bumper crop. Area is similar to the 1997/98 season at 3.0 million hectares. Hot, dry weather during the summer stressed the crop with early-September rainfall arriving too late to benefit the drought-stricken corn. Yield is estimated at 2.50 tons per hectare, down 40 percent from last year. According to the U.S. agricultural attache in Sofia, by the third week of September, about 10 percent of the corn had been harvested.

Feb 1 1998 | ROMANIA: CORN PRODUCTION ESTIMATED HIGHER
Romanian 1997/98 corn production is estimated higher this month at 12.5 million tons, up 0.5 million or 4 percent from last month. The highest production recorded since 1984/85, this year's output is up 30 percent from the 9.6 million tons produced in 1996/97. The increase is based on a higher official production estimate from the Romanian Government, and an excellent growing season. Heavy rains during the summer made harvesting difficult for winter crops, but were timely for corn. Precipitation into autumn resulted in a harvest loss for the more vulnerable sunflower crop, but did not appear to cause problems for corn.

Jan 1 1998 | FORMER SOVIET UNION: WEATHER AND CROP DEVELOPMENTS
In December, above-normal precipitation fell in Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, and Lithuania, increasing moisture reserves. During the period of December 15 -18, temperatures fell sharply in most areas, threatening winter grains. Lowest temperatures during the period ranged from -17 degrees Celsius to less than -30 degrees , exceeding the threshold for potential winter kill. Temperatures as low as -33 degrees were observed in eastern Ukraine and central Russia near Moscow. An adequate snow cover protected winter grains from the Baltics eastward through most of northern Russia as well as the northern half of Ukraine. However, snow cover in key winter wheat producing areas in the southern half of Ukraine and southern Russia (southern and central North Caucasus region, and lower Volga Valley) was thin or patchy, and the wheat crop likely sustained some damage in these vulnerable areas. However, the full extent of the damage will not be apparent until crops begin breaking dormancy in the spring. Beginning on December 19, temperatures moderated quickly and rose above-normal by month's end, improving overwintering conditions. Since early January, unseasonably mild weather prevailed over most winter grain areas and was accompanied by widespread precipitation. While the mild weather favored dormant winter grains, it further diminished protective snow cover in Ukraine and southern Russia, leaving winter wheat exposed to extremes in the weather.

Dec 1 1997 | FRANCE: CORN YIELD HIGH BECAUSE OF FAVORABLE WEATHER
With the crop harvested, French corn production is estimated at a record 16.5 million tons, up 6 percent or 1.0 million from last month's estimate and up 14 percent or 2.1 million from 1996/97. Corn yields continue to have an upward trend. The yield this season is estimated at a record 9.1 tons per hectare, up from the previous record of 8.4 tons produced last year. Area harvested is also estimated higher, up 2 percent from last month and 6 percent from last year. Favorable weather occurred throughout the growing season, especially in northern corn growing areas. In the south, where most corn is grown, timely rainfall in May was extremely beneficial allowing for excellent seed germination following drought in April which delayed planting.

Dec 1 1997 | ROMANIA: CORN ESTIMATE RAISED ON HIGHER YIELD
Romania's 1997/98 corn harvest is nearly complete and reports indicate higher-than-expected yields. Production is estimated at 12.0 million tons, up from 10.5 million last month and 9.6 million last year. Yield is estimated at 3.87 tons per hectare, up from 3.39 tons last month and 2.92 tons in 1996/97. Output this year is the highest recorded since 1986/87, and yield is the highest since 1991/92. Favorable weather during the growing season is the main reason for the bumper crop.

Nov 1 1997 | ITALY: CORN PRODUCTION ESTIMATE LOWER
Italian corn production for 1997/98 is estimated at 9.5 million tons, down 5 percent from October, and virtually unchanged from 1996/97. Corn area this year was nearly the same as last year. With the corn harvest complete, yield is estimated at 9.1 tons per hectare, down from last year's record of 9.3 tons per hectare. Below normal precipitation for planting was followed by excessive rains in June. Mostly dry weather was the norm during late season development with favorably dry weather occurring for harvest. Italy has seen a large increase in corn yields in the last few years, reaching 8.0 tons per hectare for the first time in 1992/93.

Oct 1 1997 | FRANCE: TOTAL OILSEED HARVEST BETTER THAN EXPECTED
French oilseed production is being revised higher this month to 5.7 million tons, up 0.5 million from September as rapeseed, sunflowerseed, and soybean production estimates increase period. French rapeseed production is estimated to have increased by 15 percent from 2.87 million tons in 1996/97. This year's yield of 3.40 tons/hectare compares to 2.93 tons/hectare average yield for the previous five years. Despite sunflowerseed area being revised 2 percent lower this month, production is estimated higher based on stronger yields. Production is estimated at 2.10 million tons, up from 1.90 million tons last month and up from 2.00 million tons produced in 1996/97. Favorable weather this year is credited for the higher yield which is 2.35 tons/hectare compared to 2.06 tons/hectare average for the previous five years. Soybean production is also estimated higher this month at 0.28 million tons, up from 0.25 million last month, based on a higher estimate of planted area.

Sep 1 1997 | UNITED KINGDOM: WHEAT AREA AND YIELD FORECAST TO DECLINE
Wheat production in the United Kingdom for 1997/98 is forecast at 15.5 million tons, down 1.5 million or 9 percent from last month's forecast and 4 percent below last season. The sharp decline in the production estimate for 1997/98 is the result of reductions in both area harvested and yield. Wheat area for 1997/98 is estimated at 2.0 million hectares, down 5 percent from August. This reduction is based on a downward adjustment in the area forecast by the UK's Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries, and Food (MAFF). Yield for 1997/98 is estimated at 7.64 tons per hectare, down 4 percent from the August forecast. This yield reduction results from excessive rainfall during the harvest period and is based on reports of harvest results.

Sep 1 1997 | ROMANIA: GRAIN CROPS REDUCED BY RAIN DURING HARVESTING
The U.S. agricultural counselor's office in Sofia, Bulgaria reports that wheat and coarse grain production are forecast higher for 1997/98. Wheat production for 1997/98 is forecast at 7.0 million tons, up 0.5 million from last month's forecast. Barley output is forecast higher at 2.0 million tons, 0.4 million above the August forecast, and corn is forecast at 10.0 million tons, up 1.0 million from a month ago. Area and yield for both wheat and barley were increased this month; however, precipitation during the harvest was detrimental to the harvest of both crops, causing sprout damage and reducing quality. Conversely, the cool, wet weather was beneficial to the corn crop by improving yields. Although the corn crop development has been delayed by about 15 days, the crop is rated as good to very good.

Aug 1 1997 | BULGARIA: WHEAT OUTPUT ESTIMATED HIGHER BASED ON HARVEST RESULTS
Bulgaria's 1997/98 wheat production is forecast at 3.3 million tons, up 0.5 million from last month's forecast of 2.8 million. Harvested area is estimated at 1.2 million hectares, up 0.2 million from last month. The increase in production is primarily based on early harvest results which showed area and yield to be higher than previously expected. The weather throughout the growing season has been favorable for crop development. Bulgaria is coming off a devastated 1.8 million ton crop in 1996/97 which was down primarily because of unfavorable weather during planting, overwintering, and early spring development.


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