Crop Explorer - World Agricultural Production (WAP) Briefs - Central Asia


Aug 12 2022 | Uzbekistan Cotton: Prolonged July Heat Reduces Crop
USDA forecasts Uzbekistan cotton production at 2.9 million 480-pound bales for marketing year (MY) 2022/23. This is a 3 percent decrease relative to last month, but an increase by 7 percent from last year. Harvested area is forecasted at 1.1 million hectares, unchanged from last month, but up 1 percent from last year. Yield is forecasted at 590 kilograms per hectare, down 3 percent from last month, but up 6 percent from last year. (For more information, please contact Iliana.Mladenova@usda.gov.)

May 12 2022 | Uzbekistan Cotton: Adequate Water Reserves Prompted Good Cotton Prospects for MY 2022/23
USDA forecasts Uzbekistan cotton production for marketing year (MY) 2022/23 at 3.0 million 480 pounds bales, up 9 percent from last year. Harvested area is forecast at 1.1 million hectares, up 1 percent from last year. Yield is forecast at 610 kilogram per hectare, up 8 percent from last year. (For more information, please contact Iliana.Mladenova@usda.gov.)

Nov 8 2019 | Turkmenistan Cotton: Yield Estimate Lowered due to Extreme Heat
USDA estimates Turkmenistan 2019/20 cotton production at 1.0 million 480-pound bales, down 0.2 million bales from last month but up 0.1 million bales from last year. Area is estimated at 545,000 hectares, unchanged from last month and last year. Yield is estimated at 399 kilograms per hectare, down 13 percent from last month. Extremely hot and dry weather from mid-July until early-August was detrimental to the crop. Extended temperatures as high as 42 degrees Celsius occurred at peak flowering, breaking records across Turkmenistan and negatively impacting yields. Cotton harvest began in September and is essentially complete. (For more information, please contact William.Baker@usda.gov.)

Oct 10 2019 | Turkmenistan Wheat: Crop Rebounds 114 Percent from Last Year’s Low Output
USDA estimates 2019/20 Turkmenistan wheat production at 1.5 million metric tons, up 700,000 tons (88 percent) from last month, and up 114 percent from last year. Harvested area is estimated at 900,000 hectares (ha), up 17 percent from both last month and last year. Yield is estimated at 1.70 tons per hectare, up 60 percent from last month and 83 percent from last year. Timely and well-distributed precipitation contributed to favorable growing conditions all season. In addition, spring irrigation sources improved from the accumulation of normal snow pack levels that feed the Amu Darya River system. The winter wheat crop is more than double last year’s crop which suffered from diminished irrigation and precipitation. Harvest of the wheat crop finished in August. (For more information, please contact William.Baker@usda.gov.)

Aug 12 2019 | Uzbekistan Cotton: Yield Forecast Lowered Due to Extreme Heat
USDA forecasts Uzbekistan 2019/20 cotton production at 3.0 million 480-lb bales, down 0.3 million bales from last month and last year. Area is forecast at 1.1 million hectares (mha), unchanged from last month and just slightly down from last year. Yield is forecast at 622 kilograms per hectare (kg/ha), down 8 percent from last month. Extremely hot and dry weather from midJuly until early August has been detrimental to the crop. Extended temperatures as high as 42 degrees Celsius occurred at peak flowering, breaking records across Uzbekistan and negatively impacting yields. (For more information, please contact William.Baker@fas.usda.gov.)

Apr 9 2019 | Afghanistan Barley: Production Down Due to Low Precipitation
Barley production for 2018/19 is estimated at 0.2 million metric tons (mmt), down 0.2 mmt from last month’s estimate, and down 0.2 mmt or 43 percent from last year. Harvested area is now estimated at 0.2 million hectares (mha), down 0.1 mha from last month and down 40 percent from last year. Yield is estimated at 1.33 metric tons per hectare, down 5 percent from last month, and down 24 percent from last year. Untimely and extended dryness particularly affected yields in northern barley areas. Recent reports confirm the decrease in production. (For additional information, please contact William.Baker@fas.usda.gov).

Mar 8 2019 | Turkmenistan Wheat: Low River Flow and Poor Weed Control Decrease Production
USDA estimates 2018/19 Turkmenistan wheat production at 0.7 million metric tons (mmt), down 0.2 mmt from last month, and down 30 percent from last year. Harvested area is estimated at 0.8 million hectares (mha), unchanged from last month, and down 1 percent from last year. Yield is estimated at 0.93 tons per hectare, down 22 percent from last month. Recent in-country reports indicate a decrease in production. The northern wheat crop depends on irrigation from the Amu Darya River. Low river flow conditions were observed by satellite imagery in this region during the growing season and substantiated by significantly decreased 2017-2018 snow cover observations in the Pamir Mountains (yellow in the chart). The Pamir Mountains, located in Tajikistan, are the main water source for the Amu Darya River. In addition, poor weed control contributed to lower yield prospects. Harvest of the 2018/19 wheat crop occurred in the summer of 2018. (For more information, please contact William.Baker@fas.usda.gov.)

Aug 10 2018 | Uzbekistan Cotton: Hot, Dry Weather Reduces Forecast Cotton Yield
Uzbekistan cotton production for 2018/19 is forecast at 3.30 million 480-lb bales, down 0.5 million bales from last month, and down 0.7 million bales from last year. Harvested area is forecast at 1.2 million hectares, unchanged from last month and down 4 percent from last year. Yield is forecast at 599 kilograms per hectare down 12 percent from last month and down 13 percent from last year, and down 11 percent from the 5-year average. Extremely hot and dry weather from mid-July until early August has been detrimental to the crop. Temperatures as high as 41 degrees Celsius occurred at peak flowering, breaking records across Uzbekistan and negatively impacting yield. (For more information, please contact William.Baker@fas.usda.gov)

Jul 12 2010 | Uzbekistan Cotton: Favorable Early-Season Conditions Boost Cotton Prospects
The USDA estimates Uzbekistan cotton production for 2010/11 at 4.8 million bales, up 0.2 million from last month and up 0.8 million from last year. Last year's crop was impacted by excessive heat throughout the growing season that resulted in reduced yields. Area is estimated at 1.30 million hectares, unchanged from both last month and last year. Yield is forecast at 804 kilograms per hectare, 4 percent above the five-year-average. Heavy spring rainfall necessitated localized replanting this spring, chiefly in eastern Uzbekistan, but the overall level of replanting was relatively low. Temperatures were favorably warm during June, when the crop was advancing through the reproductive stage. Local observers report that current crop conditions are generally good.According to a U.S. agricultural attache report, it has become increasingly difficult over the last several years for producers to attain state production targets due to poor farming practices and the absence of appropriate incentives. The government still maintains tight control over all aspects of cotton production, including planted area, prices, inputs, procurement, and marketing. Furthermore, the ginning sector is in need of investment in order to modernize its mostly old gins.Uzbek farmers are increasing the use of locally-developed, early-maturing cotton varieties. Each variety has unique characteristics for maturity, yield, and disease-resistance, and is sown in different regions depending on soil conditions. Except for one relatively new variety (Bukhara-8), most of the widely-used varieties were developed 10 to 15 years ago. BT cotton is not approved for use in Uzbekistan. (For more information, contact Mark Lindeman at 202-690-0143.)

May 11 2010 | World Cotton: Many Countries Contribute to 2010/11 Production Increase
World cotton production is forecast to increase to 113.9 million bales in 2010/11, up 11 percent from 2009/10. Harvested area is forecast to increase to 32.3 million hectares, up 7 percent from the previous year. Yields are forecast at 768 kilograms per hectare, up from 739 kilograms in 2009/10 and compared to the 5-year average of 759 kilograms.Many producing countries are contributing to the increase. U.S. output is forecast at 16.7 million bales, up 4.5 million from last year, and India production is forecast at 25.0 million bales, up 1.5 million. Brazil's output is forecast 0.95 million bales higher, with Pakistan up 0.7 million, Uzbekistan up 0.5 million and Turkey up 0.4 million.After the cotton industry faced excess cotton stocks for the 2008/09 marketing year and low prices starting in late 2008, the industry saw a reversal with diminished stocks in 2009/10 and higher prices from mid-2009. An improving world economy, especially in Asia, resulted in increased demand which has kept world cotton prices attractive and induced the rising output levels projected for 2010/11. World average yield decreased in 2009/10 with relatively poor crops in Australia, the United States, India, the EU-27, and Burkina. Closer-to-trend yields are forecast for the 2010/11 crop. (For further information, contact Paul Provance at 202-720-0873.)

Jun 10 2009 | Afghanistan Wheat Production Rebounds
The USDA currently forecasts Afghanistan's 2009/10 wheat crop at 3.4 million tons, up 1.9 million or 127 percent from last year. Afghanistan suffered a severe drought last year which decimated its 2008/09 winter grain crop and caused an acute food and feed-grain shortage throughout much of the country. USDA estimates 2008/09 wheat production to have fallen 55 percent from 2007/08. This major production shortfall of the nation's staple grain crop was exacerbated by disruptions in regional grain trade (export bans) and increasing conflict in major transport corridors along the Pakistani border, resulting in record high domestic food grain prices and increasing food insecurity. With a seriously diminished supply of wheat in the country, officials have been particularly concerned about the outlook for the 2009/10 wheat crop. This crop was sown in the autumn of 2008 and will be harvested from May through August 2009. Overall seasonal conditions have been near ideal this year, with spring rainfall substantially above normal. The rain boosted crop development throughout Afghanistan's vast northern grain belt, likely ensuring a healthy recovery in grain production. Satellite imagery indicates that the wheat crop is in excellent condition and that production is expected to reach near-record levels. The sharp rebound in wheat production should help alleviate existing regional grain shortages, assist the government in building emergency stocks, help reduce imports to more normal levels, and cause a significant decline in persistently high food grain prices in the country. (For more information, contact Michael Shean at 202-720-7366).

Aug 12 2008 | Afghanistan: Severe Drought Significantly Reduces Wheat Production
The USDA estimates 2008/09 Afghanistan wheat production at 1.5 million tons, down 1.0 million from last month and down 2.3 million or 61 percent from last year. Harvested area is estimated at 1.6 million hectares, down 0.6 million from last month. Well-below-normal rainfall and winter snowfall across the majority of Afghanistan during late 2007 and early 2008 have led to the worst drought conditions in the past 10 years. Based on field reports from Afghanistan, drought conditions were severe enough to cause widespread failure of the rainfed wheat crop in many areas of the country. Rainfed wheat production typically accounts for about 30 percent of total production. Even more critical, however, was the severely depleted irrigation supply in the spring owing to a much-reduced winter snowpack. Irrigated wheat production accounts for roughly 70 percent of total output, and is nearly totally reliant on snowmelt and the resulting surface water flow through mountain streams and rivers. Irrigated wheat acreage was likely reduced in 2008/09 as a consequence of much reduced snowpack in the central Hindu Kush mountain range, and irrigated crop yields would have been negatively impacted as well. Wheat harvest generally occurs between May and September, with the rainfed crop being the earliest to mature. Given the intensification of the drought in recent months, even the later-maturing irrigated summer grain crops are threatened. Seasonal rainfall typically declines after April, so only crops with access to adequate irrigation supplies will survive to produce near-normal yields this year. Reductions in winter grain production are expected to be substantial enough to have serious ramifications in the domestic food and feed grain market during the 2008/09 marketing year. In recognition of the severity of the grain production shortfall, the government of Afghanistan and the United Nations issued an emergency appeal in July to the world community to donate $400 million to cover sizable wheat import and food aid needs for approximately 4.5 million affected Afghans, as well as to prepare for the next winter cropping season beginning in October. (For more information, contact Michael Shean at 202-720-7366.)

Dec 11 2007 | Uzbekistan: Cotton Harvest Benefits from Dry Harvest Weather
The USDA estimates Uzbekistan cotton production for 2007/08 at a 5.50 million bales, up 0.10million or 2 percent from last month and up 0.15 million or 3 percent from last year. Area isestimated at 1.45 million hectares, unchanged from last month and essentially matching lastyears level. Yield is estimated at 826 kilograms per hectare, slightly up from last year and 9percent above the average of the past five years. Conditions were extremely favorable for thecotton crop throughout the growing season.

May 12 2006 | Uzbekistan wheat production for 2006/07
Uzbekistan wheat production for 2006/07 is forecast to drop by 1.0 million tons, to 5.0 million, due to a 10-percent drop in sown winter wheat area. Total wheat area is estimated at 1.3 million hectares, and yield slightly above average at 3.85 tons per hectare. Roughly 90 percent of the wheat crop is under irrigation, and yields have been consistently high over the past five years. (For more information on the FSU, contact Mark Lindeman at 202-690-0143.)

Dec 1 2005 | Uzbekistan: Record Wheat Crop for 2005/06
The USDA estimates Uzbekistan wheat production for 2005/06 at a record 5.7 million tons, up 16 percent from last month and up 10 percent from last year. Area is estimated at 1.3 million hectares, unchanged from last month, but down 7 percent from last year. Uzbekistan wheat area tripled between the mid-1980's and the mid-1990's as part of a national drive to achieve self-sufficiency in wheat production; however it has remained relatively stable since 1995, fluctuating between 1.2 and 1.4 million hectares. Yield has risen steadily since 1995, due in part to an increase in the area under irrigation. (For more information, contact Mark Lindeman at 202-690-0143.)

Nov 1 2005 | Uzbekistan: Cotton Yield Reaches 15-Year High
The USDA estimates Uzbekistan cotton production for 2005/06 at 5.6 million bales, up 12 percent from last month and up 8 percent from last year. Area is estimated at 1.45 million hectares, unchanged from last month and from last year. A relatively small portion of the crop required replanting this spring - only 5 percent compared to 12 percent last year. Following favorable weather during the growing season and low rainfall during the harvest campaign, lint output reached the highest level in ten years. (For more information, contact Mark Lindeman at 202-690-0143.)

Aug 1 1997 | UZBEKISTAN: COTTON YIELDS INCREASE WITH WARM JUNE TEMPERATURES
Uzbekistan cotton production for 1997/98 is estimated at 5.8 million bales, up 0.2 million from July and up 1.0 million from last year. Lint yield is forecast to rebound to 842 kilograms, up 22 percent from last year. Despite unusually heavy rainfall during March and April that entailed extensive re- planting, the cotton crop benefitted from above-average temperatures during June as it advanced into the reproductive stage. Cotton is a heat-loving plant; adequate heat at this stage of crop development is an important factor in determining potential yield, and June temperatures can be used as one indicator of final output. Over the past twelve years, the five highest cotton yields (averaging 856 kg/ha) have come in years when June temperatures were above normal: 1985, 1988, 1989, 1990, and 1991. Conversely, low June temperatures have contributed to reduced yields in 1987 (713 kg/ha), 1992 (764 kg/ha), and 1996 (689 kg/ha).

Oct 1 1997 | TURKMENISTAN: COTTON HARVEST PROSPECTS IMPROVE
Turkmenistan cotton production is estimated at 1.0 million bales, up 0.3 million from last month and up 0.4 million from last year. According to a recent U.S. agricultural attache report, yield prospects are up substantially from last year's extremely low level but still 35 percent below the average of the past five years. Following last year's disappointing harvest, officials introduced measures to boost production incentives, including land- privatization policies and advance payments which enabled farmers to purchase and apply increased amounts of fertilizer. The cotton crop also has benefitted from generally favorable weather throughout the growing season.

Jul 1 2000 | Uzbekistan: Wheat Yield Benefits from Increase in Irrigated Area
Uzbekistans 2000/01 wheat output is estimated at 4.0 million tons, up 1.0 million or 33 percent from last month, and up 0.4 million or 11 percent from last year. Area is estimated at 1.3 million hectares, unchanged from last month and last year. With grain harvest roughly half complete, officials reported indicate that output is up 0.5 million tons from the same date last year. According to officials, the area under irrigation increased by a reported 50,000 hectares this year. Roughly 75 percent of the wheat area is irrigated.

Aug 1 2000 | Central Asia: Cotton Threatened by Long-term Drought
Uzbekistan lint production for 2000/01 is estimated at 4.9 million bales, down 0.2 million or 4 percent from last month and down 0.4 million or 8 percent from last year. Turkmenistan output is estimated at 1.0 million bales, down 0.2 million or 17 percent from last month and down 0.1 million or 10 percent from last year. Winter precipitation in the Tien Shan mountains -- the main source of irrigation water for the region -- has been below normal for four of the past five years. This reportedly has resulted in a shortage of water in some cotton regions. Reports indicate that roughly 30 percent of the cotton area in both Uzbekistan and Turkmenistan has been affected by restricted irrigation this year. The impact of the drought has been compounded by outdated and inefficient irrigation systems.

Sep 1 2000 | Uzbekistan: Drought Reduces Wheat Harvest
Uzbekistan wheat production for 2000/01 is estimated at 3.5 million tons, down 0.5 million or 13 percent from last month and down 0.1 million or 3 percent from last year. According to Uzbek officials, water shortages caused significant damage to the wheat crop as well as others crops. Wheat production will fall far short of some earlier projections which had been around 4.7 million tons.

Nov 1 2000 | Uzbekistan: Cotton Yield Potential Reduced by Drought
Uzbekistan cotton production for 2000/01 is estimated at 4.5 million bales, down 0.4 million or 8 percent from last month and down 0.7 million or13 percent from last year. Yield potential was reduced this year because of a shortage of irrigation water in some western and northern oblasts. Roughly one-third of the countrys cotton area was significantly affected by drought. Crop conditions elsewhere in the country were generally good throughout the growing season.

Aug 1 2002 | Uzbekistan: Grain Harvest Reaches Record Level
Uzbekistan wheat production for 2002/03 is estimated at 4.7 million tons, up 0.7 million or 18 percent from last month and up 1.3 million or 38 percent above last year. Area is estimated at 1.2 million hectares, the same as last year. After three years of drought, winter wheat, the countrys main grain crop, benefited from above-normal amounts of winter and spring precipitation. Officials report indicate that the grain harvest is virtually complete and that yield reached record levels this year.

Aug 1 1999 | UZBEKISTAN: COTTON YIELDS CUT DUE TO UNFAVORABLE WEATHER, LOCUST DAMAGE
Cotton production for 1999/2000 is estimated at 4.8 million bales, down from the 5.0 million last month, but up from the 4.6 million last year. According to the U.S. Agricultural Counselor, yield potential has been reduced because of unfavorable weather and some locust damage. An estimated 0.5 million hectares were replanted due to heavy spring rains, but subsequent wetter and cooler than normal conditions retarded crop development. Local sources reported that locusts have damaged 0.2 million hectares of cotton in the southern growing region. However, the U.S. Agricultural Counselor says that the extent of locust damage is difficult to set. The government maintains that spraying and other measures have effectively reduced damage, while other observers believe that locusts have had and will continue to have a negative impact on production.

Sep 1 1999 | UZBEKISTAN: COTTON YIELDS CUT DUE TO UNFAVORABLE WEATHER, LOCUST DAMAGE
Cotton production for 1999/2000 is estimated at 4.8 million bales, down from the 5.0 million last month, but up from the 4.6 million last year. According to the U.S. Agricultural Counselor, yield potential has been reduced because of unfavorable weather and some locust damage. An estimated 0.5 million hectares were replanted due to heavy spring rains, but subsequent wetter and cooler than normal conditions retarded crop development. Local sources reported that locusts have damaged 0.2 million hectares of cotton in the southern growing region. However, the U.S. Agricultural Counselor says that the extent of locust damage is difficult to set. The government maintains that spraying and other measures have effectively reduced damage, while other observers believe that locusts have had and will continue to have a negative impact on production.

Nov 1 1999 | UZBEKISTAN: HARVEST REPORTS INDICATE STRONG REBOUND
Cotton production is estimated at 5.2 million bales, up 0.4 million from last month and up 0.6 million from last years weather-reduced crop. According to official reports, seed-cotton deliveries had reached 3.5 million tons as of late October, up roughly 20 percent from the same time last year and matching the 1997/98 pace when 5.2 million bales were produced. Typically, harvest is more than 90 percent complete by late October. However, this seasons harvest appears to have progressed at a more rapid pace because of the ideal weather during the harvest season suggesting that less cotton remains to be harvested than in previous years.

Aug 1 2003 | Iran and Afghanistan: 2003/04 Wheat Production Higher
Forecast Iran 2003/04 wheat production is estimated at 11 million tons, up 1 million or 10 percent from last month, and just below last years 12 million ton estimate. Good weather and reduced import activity signal a large wheat crop for Iran; seasonal rainfall and crop vegetation conditions in most growing areas were similar to last years record crop. Only the western provinces of Lorestan and Khuzestan, with 15 percent of production, experienced rainfall deficits during the spring. A decline in crop-vegetation was observed and is likely to reduce yields. Afghanistans 2003/04 wheat production is estimated at 4.5 million tons, up 1.0 million or 29 percent from last month and 1.8 million tons or 67 percent above last year. Area is estimated at a record 3.2 million hectares, 1.5 million hectares above last year. This is the second consecutive year of improved production following several years of drought in Afghanistan; a significant increase in planted area and very favorable weather has raised output to a record high. Wet planting conditions encouraged farmers to increase area and favorable rainfall during the remainder of the season provided adequate water supplies. (For more information, contact Maria Anulacion at 202-690-0139)

May 1 2005 | Wheat production in Kyrgyzstan is forecast slightly higher at 1.1 million tons
Wheat production in Kyrgyzstan is forecast slightly higher at 1.1 million tons, from an estimated 1.0 million last year, due to an increase in estimated area. According to Ministry of Agriculture, Kyrgyzstan will plant 0.3 million hectares of spring wheat this year, against an estimated 0.2 million in 2004. Total spring grain area will reach 0.4 million hectares. Winter grains have been sown on 0.3 million hectares similar to last year.

May 1 2005 | In Uzbekistan, wheat production for 2005/06
In Uzbekistan, wheat production for 2005/06 is forecast at 5.2 million tons and area at 1.4 million hectares, both unchanged from last year. With roughly 90 percent of the wheat crop under irrigation, yield is forecast to remain consistent with the yields of the past 2 years, at 3.71 tons per hectare.


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