Crop Explorer - Production Briefs - Ukraine, Moldova and Belarus

Office of Global Analysis Production Briefs - Ukraine, Moldova and Belarus

Oct 10 2019 | Ukraine Sunflowerseed: Late Season Dryness Lowers Yield
Ukraine sunflowerseed production for 2019/20 is estimated at 14.5 million metric tons (mmt), down 6 percent from last month and down 3 percent from last year. Yield is estimated at 2.34 tons per hectare, down 6 percent from last month, but up 1 percent from last year. The month-to-month decrease in yield is due to late season dryness for sunflowers in eastern and central Ukraine even though weather remained favorably cool. Recent harvest reports from the Ministry of Agriculture confirm the decreased yield. Total area is estimated at 6.2 million hectares, unchanged from last month and down 5 percent from last year. USDA crop production estimates for Ukraine include estimated output from Crimea. (For more information, please contact Katie.McGaughey@usda.gov.)

Sep 12 2019 | Ukraine Corn: Dry Weather in August Decreases Yield
Ukraine corn production for 2019/20 is estimated at 36.0 million metric tons, down 1 percent from last month, but up 1 percent from last year. Yield is estimated at 7.35 tons per hectare, down 1 percent from last month and down 6 percent from last year’s record. The estimated harvested area is unchanged from last month at a record 4.9 million hectares, which is up 7 percent from last year. (For more information, please contact Katie.McGaughey@fas.usda.gov.)

Aug 12 2019 | Ukraine Corn: Record Production Driven by Higher Sown Area and Near Record Yields
Ukraine corn production for 2019/20 is forecast at 36.5 million metric tons (mmt), up 7 percent from last month and up 2 percent from last year. Yield is forecast at 7.45 tons per hectare, up 3 percent from last month, but down 5 percent from last year’s record. The estimated harvested area was increased slightly to 4.9 million hectares (mha) from 4.7 mha based on final sown area data released by the State Statistical Service of Ukraine. (For more information, please contact Katie.McGaughey@fas.usda.gov.)

Aug 12 2019 | Ukraine Sunflowerseed: Favorable Weather Boosts Yield to a Record
Ukraine sunflowerseed production for 2019/20 is forecast at 15.5 million metric tons (mmt), up 5 percent from last month and up 3 percent from last year. Yield is forecast at a record 2.50 tons per hectare, up 5 percent from last month and up 8 percent from last year. The month-to-month increase in yields is due to recent favorable weather for sunflowers in eastern and central Ukraine. Total area is estimated at 6.2 million hectares, unchanged from last month. (For more information, please contact Katie.McGaughey@fas.usda.gov.)

Jul 11 2019 | Ukraine Wheat: Drought in the Steppe Zone Reduces Yield
Ukraine wheat production for 2019/20 is forecast at 29.0 million metric tons, down 3 percent from last month and up 16 percent from last year. Harvested area is forecast at 7.0 million hectares, unchanged from last month and up 4 percent from last year. Yield is forecast at 4.14 tons per hectare, down 3 percent from last month but up 11 percent from last year. The month-to-month decrease in yield is attributed to hot and dry weather in the Steppe Zone, which accounts for about half of Ukraine’s production. MODIS Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) in the Steppe Zone shows a below-average crop starting in mid-June. All USDA crop production estimates for Ukraine include estimated output from Crimea. (For more information, please contact Katie.McGaughey@fas.usda.gov.)

Jun 11 2019 | Ukraine Wheat: Record Yield Expected
Ukraine wheat production for 2019/20 is forecast at 30.0 million metric tons, up 3 percent from last month and up 20 percent from last year. Harvested area is forecast at 7.0 million hectares, unchanged from last month and up 4 percent from last year. Yield is forecast at a record 4.29 tons per hectare, up 3 percent from last month and up 15 percent from last year. The month-to-month increase in yield is attributed to favorable weather in the Steppe Zone, which accounts for about half of Ukraine’s production. Landsat imagery shows favorable conditions compared to last year. Additionally, MODIS Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) in the Steppe Zone depicts an above-average crop. All USDA crop production estimates for Ukraine include estimated output from Crimea. (For more information, please contact Katie.McGaughey@fas.usda.gov.)

Feb 8 2019 | Ukraine Corn: State Statistical Agency Reports Record Yield
USDA estimates Ukraine corn production for 2018/19 at a record 35.5 million metric tons (mmt), up 0.5 mmt from December, up 11.4 mmt from last year and 4.6 mmt above the previous record crop which was harvested in 2013. Harvest was complete in December. The estimated harvested area is 4.55 million hectares (mha), up 0.05 mha from December. Yield is estimated at a record 7.80 metric tons per hectare and is attributed to favorable conditions throughout the growing season. The increased estimate is based on preliminary harvest data from the State Statistical Service of Ukraine. (For more information, please contact Katie.McGaughey@fas.usda.gov.)

Dec 11 2018 | Ukraine Corn: Harvest Reports Cite Record Production
USDA estimates Ukraine corn production for 2018/19 at a record 35.0 million metric tons (mmt), up 1.5 mmt from last month, up 10.9 mmt from last year and 4.1 mmt above the previous record crop which was harvested in 2013. Yield is estimated at 7.78 metric tons per hectare, 4 percent above last month and 43 percent above last year. The high yield is attributed to favorable growing conditions throughout the season. The estimated harvested area is unchanged at 4.5 million hectares. The yield reported by the Ministry of Agrarian Policy and Food as of December 4, 2018 was 21 percent above the previous high for that date. Harvest is 97 percent complete and will continue until mid-December. (For more information, please contact Mark.Lindeman@fas.usda.gov.)

Nov 8 2018 | Ukraine Corn: Harvest to Shatter Previous Record
USDA estimates Ukraine corn production for 2018/19 at a record 33.5 million metric tons (mmt), up 2.5 mmt from last month, up 9.4 mmt from last year and 2.6 mmt above the previous record crop which was harvested in 2013. Yield is now estimated at 7.44 metric tons per hectare, 8 percent above last month and 37 percent above last year, surpassing the 2016/17 yield record by 13 percent. The high yield was attributed to ideal weather throughout the growing season. The harvested area projection is unchanged at 4.5 million hectares. The yield reported by the Ministry of Agrarian Policy and Food as of November 6, 2018 was 20 percent above the previous high for that date. Harvest is 79 percent complete and will continue through the rest of November. (For more information, please contact Mark.Lindeman@fas.usda.gov.)

Aug 10 2018 | Ukraine Corn: Record Yield Forecast
USDA forecasts Ukraine corn production for 2018/19 at a record 31.0 million metric tons (mmt), up 1.0 mmt from last month, up 6.9 mmt from last year, and 0.1 mmt above the previous record crop which was harvested in 2013. Yield is forecast at 6.89 metric tons per hectare, 6 percent above last month, 27 percent above last year, and surpassing the 2016/17 record by 5 percent. The estimated harvest area was reduced slightly to 4.5 million hectares, based on final sown area data released by the State Statistical Service of Ukraine. This year’s crop has benefited from outstanding weather in central Ukraine, the main corn production region. Harvest will begin in September. (For more information, please contact Mark.Lindeman@fas.usda.gov.)

Jul 12 2018 | Ukraine Sunseed: Severe Drought in the Main Production Zone
USDA forecasts Ukraine 2018/19 sunseed production at 13.5 million metric tons (mmt), down 2.0 mmt from last month and down 0.2 mmt from last year. Harvested area is estimated at a record 6.5 million hectares (mha), up 0.1 mha from last year. Although recent weather has been favorable for corn and soybeans in central and western Ukraine, persistent dryness has prevailed in the southern and eastern regions, which is the major production zone for sunseed. As a result, the forecast yield for sunflowerseed is decreased to 2.08 metric tons per hectare, down 13 percent from last month and down 3 percent from last year. Harvest will begin in early September and continue through mid-November. All USDA production numbers for Ukraine include estimated output from Crimea. (For more information, please contact Mark.Lindeman@fas.usda.gov.)

Jul 12 2018 | Ukraine Wheat: Hot, Dry Weather in the Steppe Zone Reduces Estimated Yield
Ukraine wheat production for 2018/19 is estimated by USDA at 25.5 million metric tons (mmt), down 1.0 mmt from last month and down 1.5 mmt from last year. The USDA production forecast includes estimated output from Crimea. Yield is estimated at 3.81 metric tons per hectare, down 4 percent from last month, down 6 percent from last year, and 2 percent below the 5-year average. The month-tomonth reduction is based on severe drought in the steppe zone (southern Ukraine), which accounts for about half of Ukraine’s wheat output. Harvested area is estimated at 6.7 million hectares, up slightly from last year. The wheat harvest began earlier than usual this year because of the hot and dry weather, which accelerated crop development. The Ministry of Agrarian Policy and Food reported harvest was complete on 34 percent of the planted area as of July 10 compared to about 12 percent by the same date last year. (For more information, please contact Mark.Lindeman@fas.usda.gov.)

May 10 2018 | Ukraine Wheat: Warm April Weather Accelerates 2018/19 Crop Development
Ukraine wheat production for 2018/19 is estimated by USDA at 26.5 million metric tons (mmt), down 0.5 mmt from last year and 0.8 mmt below the record harvest of 2015/16. The USDA production forecast includes estimated output from Crimea. Yield is estimated at 3.96 metric tons per hectare, down 2 percent from last year and 5 percent below the 2016/17 record. Harvested area is estimated at 6.7 million hectares, up slightly from last year. (For more information, please contact Mark.Lindeman@fas.usda.gov.)

Feb 8 2018 | Ukraine Wheat: Another Bumper Crop
Ukraine wheat production for 2017/18 is estimated by USDA at 27.0 million metric tons (mmt), up 0.5 mmt from last month and up 0.2 mmt from last year. The increased estimate is based on preliminary harvest data from the State Statistical Service of Ukraine, which includes output from Crimea. Yield is estimated at 4.06 metric tons per hectare (t/ha), up 1 percent from last month and second only to last year’s record 4.15 t/ha. The four highest yields of the past 25 years have all occurred within the past four years. Although the past three years in particular have been marked by exceptionally favorable weather for wheat, the steady increase in yield over the past 15 years reflects a steady improvement in agricultural technology, including more efficient harvesting machinery. (For more information, please contact Mark.Lindeman@fas.usda.gov.)

Feb 8 2018 | Ukraine Sunseed: USDA Analysis Supports Current Production Estimate
USDA estimates Ukraine 2017/18 sunseed production at 13.0 million metric tons (mmt), unchanged from last month but down 2.2 mmt from last year’s record. Estimated area and yield are also unchanged, at 6.4 million hectares and 2.03 metric tons per hectare. The estimates are based in part on preliminary harvest data released by the State Statistical Service of Ukraine (SSS), which cites net sunseed output at 12.2 mmt. The USDA number also includes estimated output not reflected in the SSS number, as well as reported output from Crimea. Analysis of sunseed-oil export data and other reliable data indicates official sunseed production numbers have underestimated actual output over the past twelve years, sometimes by as much as 16 percent. Private commodity analysts attribute the discrepancy largely to inaccurate data provided to the SSS by sunseed producers, who routinely under-report actual area and production in an effort to appear compliant with official sanctions against the too-frequent planting of sunflowers. Specialists recommend that sunflowers not be planted in the same field more than once every five to seven years in order to reduce the occurrence of soil-borne fungal diseases. Due to the consistently high profitability of sunseed, however, many farmers are inclined to “push the rotation” and plant sunflowers more frequently than recommended. (For more information, please contact Mark.Lindeman@fas.usda.gov.)

Nov 9 2017 | Ukraine Corn: Four Months of Dryness in the Main Corn Region Drives Down Yield
Ukraine corn production for 2017/18 is estimated at 25.0 million metric tons (mmt), down 2.0 mmt from last month and down 3.0 mmt from last year. The estimated harvested area is unchanged at 4.5 million hectares, up slightly from last year. The estimated yield of 5.56 metric tons per hectare is down 7 percent from last month, down 16 percent from last year, and 6 percent below the 5-year average. Dryness prevailed in the main corn production regions throughout much of the growing season, most notably in the foreststeppe zone, which accounts for over 60 percent of the country’s corn production. According to data from the Ministry of Agrarian Policy and Food, the corn harvest was 69 percent complete as of November 7. The reported yield is down 19 percent from the same date last year, including a 24-percent year-to-year drop in the forest-steppe zone. Harvest will continue until early December. (For more information, please contact Mark.Lindeman@fas.usda.gov.)

Nov 9 2017 | Ukraine Sunseed: Harvest Nears Completion with Yield Down 11 Percent from Last Year
USDA estimates Ukraine 2017/18 sunseed production at 13.0 million metric tons (mmt), down 0.5 mmt from last month and down 2.2 mmt from last year’s record. The month-to-month decrease is based on harvest reports from the Ministry of Agrarian Policy and Food citing an 11-percent year-toyear drop in yield following four months of unrelenting dryness. Yield is estimated by USDA at 2.03 tons per hectare, down 4 percent from last month, down 14 percent from last year’s record, and 1 percent below the 5-year average. The Ministry reports that sunseed harvest was 97 percent complete as of November 7. All USDA crop production estimates for Ukraine include estimated output from Crimea. (For more information, please contact Mark.Lindeman@fas.usda.gov.)

Sep 12 2017 | Ukraine Corn: Brief Rainy Episode in July Fails to Boost Yield Prospects
USDA estimates Ukraine corn production for 2017/18 at 27.5 million metric tons (mmt), down 1.0 mmt from last month but up 0.5 mmt from last year. The estimated harvested area is unchanged at 4.5 million hectares, up slightly from last year. The estimated yield is reduced to 6.11 metric tons per hectare, down 4 percent from last month and down 7 percent from last year but 3 percent above the 5-year average. Dryness has prevailed in the main corn-production region throughout much of the growing season. Crops benefited from timely rain during late July, but this was followed by a return to unfavorably dry weather. The corn harvest is underway in southern Ukraine, but less than 1 percent of the planted area had been harvested by September 6. (For more information, please contact Mark.Lindeman@fas.usda.gov.)

Aug 10 2017 | Ukraine Corn: Timely Rain Alleviates Drought Stress
Ukraine corn production for 2017/18 is forecast at 28.5 million metric tons (mmt), unchanged from last month but up 0.5 mmt from last year. The estimated harvested area is increased slightly, from 4.4 to 4.5 million hectares, based on data from the State Statistical Service of Ukraine. The forecast yield is reduced to 6.33 tons per hectare, down 2 percent from last month and down 4 percent from last year but 7 percent above the 5-year average. Dryness prevailed in the main corn production region during much of the growing season, but corn likely benefited from extremely timely rain during the last week of July when a large share of the crop was advancing through the critical reproductive stage. (For more information, please contact Mark.Lindeman@fas.usda.gov.)

Aug 10 2017 | Ukraine Wheat: Estimated Output Increased Based on Harvest Reports
Ukraine wheat production for 2017/18 is estimated at 26.5 million metric tons, up 2.5 million from last month but down 0.3 million from last year. The increase is based on harvest data from the Ministry of Agrarian Policy and Food indicating higherthan- expected yields in Ukraine’s foreststeppe zone. Drought prevailed during the growing season in parts of the forest-steppe zone, which typically produces over 40 percent of the country’s wheat. The estimated yield is increased to 4.02 tons per hectare, down 10 percent from last month, down 3 percent from last year, and 11 percent above the 5-year average. As of August 8, the wheat harvest was about 92 percent complete. All USDA crop production estimates for Ukraine include estimated output from Crimea. (For more information, please contact Mark.Lindeman@fas.usda.gov.)

Jul 12 2017 | Ukraine Sunflowerseed: Yield and Production Forecast at Record Levels
USDA forecasts Ukraine 2017/18 sunflowerseed production at a record 14.5 million metric tons (mmt), up 0.5 mmt from last month and up 0.3 mmt from last year. The month-to-month increase is based on an increase in estimated area, from 6.2 to 6.4 million hectares, matching last year’s record. Yield is forecast at 2.27 tons per hectare, nearly unchanged from last month but up 2 percent from last year’s record and 12 percent above the 5-year average. Surface moisture was low throughout most of the planting campaign and during crop emergence and establishment. Sub-surface moisture, however, remains adequate in the main sunflower region in southern and eastern Ukraine. July and August are typically the critical months for determining potential sunflowerseed yield. (All USDA crop production estimates for Ukraine exclude estimated output from Crimea.)

Jul 12 2017 | Ukraine Wheat: Persistent Dryness Depletes Soil Moisture and Reduces Yield Prospects
Ukraine wheat production for 2017/18 is forecast at 24.0 million metric tons, down 1.0 million from last month and down 2.8 million from last year. Harvested area is estimated at 6.60 million hectares against 6.45 million last year. Yield is estimated at 3.64 tons per hectare, down 4 percent from last month and down 13 percent from last year, but slightly above the 5-year average. The month-to-month decrease in estimated yield is attributed to severe dryness in central and western Ukraine, which hampered winter wheat development and led to a gradual depletion of the abundant early-season soil moisture. Prospects remain favorable in the Steppe Zone of southern and eastern Ukraine, which produces about 45 percent of Ukraine’s wheat and where the crop benefited from generally favorable weather. Harvest has just begun in southern Ukraine; as of July 4, wheat had been harvested on 2 percent of the sown area. All USDA crop production estimates for Ukraine include estimated output from Crimea. (For more information, please contact Mark.Lindeman@fas.usda.gov). Russia Wheat: Excellent Conditions for Both

Jun 9 2017 | Ukraine Sunseed: Area and Production Forecast at Record Levels
USDA forecasts Ukraine 2017/18 sunseed production at 14.0 million metric tons (mmt), up 0.5 mmt from last month and up 0.25 mmt from last year’s record. The month-to-month increase is based on an increase in estimated area, from 6.0 to 6.2 million hectares. A June 6 report from the Ministry of Agrarian Policy and Food (MAPF) cites planted area at 5.5 million hectares (mha). The final sown area reported by the State Statistical Service of Ukraine, published in late July, typically surpasses the level cited by MAPF in early June by about 0.6 mha. USDA forecasts harvested area at 6.2 mha, up 0.2 mha from last month and matching last year’s level. All USDA crop production estimates for Ukraine include estimated output from Crimea.

Jun 9 2017 | Ukraine Corn: Estimated Area Up Slightly from Last Year
Ukraine corn production for 2017/18 is estimated at 28.5 million tons, up 0.5 million from both last month and last year. The month-to-month increase is based on data from the Ministry of Agrarian Policy and Food, which reports sown area at slightly over 4.46 million hectares (mha) as of June 6 with planting 99 percent complete. USDA estimates harvested area at 4.4 mha, up 0.1 mha from last month and up 0.15 mha from last year. Over the past five years, between 1 and 6 percent of the final sown area was not harvested for grain. The forecast yield of 6.48 metric tons per hectare, which is essentially unchanged from last month, is down 2 percent from last year and 9 percent above the 5-year average. The yield for Ukraine corn hinges mainly on weather during July and August, when the crop is advancing through the reproductive stages of development. Harvest will begin in September. (For more information, please contact Mark.Lindeman@fas.usda.gov.)

May 10 2017 | Ukraine Wheat: Abundant Soil Moisture Supports Above-Average Yield for 2017/18
Ukraine wheat production for 2017/18 is forecast at 25.0 million metric tons, down 1.8 million from last year, and harvested area is estimated at 6.6 million hectares compared to 6.5 million last year. Although fall dryness delayed winter-wheat planting and reduced the time available for crop establishment, the melting of unusually deep snow cover fully replenished subsoil moisture reserves and benefited winter crops as they resumed spring growth. In addition to boosting soil moisture, the snow cover protected winter crops against frost damage; the State Statistical Committee of Ukraine estimates that winter-crop losses will be minimal this year. Yield is forecast at 3.79 tons per hectare, 9 percent below last year’s record but 5 percent above the 5-year average. Wheat is grown throughout the country, but the main production regions are central, southern, and eastern Ukraine. Wheat harvest will begin in late June or early July and conclude by the end of August. All USDA crop production estimates for Ukraine include estimated output from Crimea. (For more information, please contact Mark.Lindeman@fas.usda.gov.)

Feb 9 2017 | Ukraine Corn: State Statistical Agency Reports Record Yield
Ukraine corn production for 2016/17 is estimated at 28.0 million tons, up 1.0 million from last month’s estimate and up 4.7 million from last year’s drought-reduced crop. This year’s crop is 2.9 million tons below the record crop of 2013/14, when area reached a record level. The month-tomonth increase is based on preliminary harvest data from the State Statistical Committee of Ukraine (SSC). Yield is now estimated by USDA at 6.59 tons per hectare, up 4 percent from last month, up 15 percent from last year, and surpassing the 2011/12 record by 2 percent. Estimated harvested area remains unchanged at 4.25 million hectares. Persistently wet weather significantly delayed this season’s corn harvest, and local commodity analysts reported that some farmers intended to leave some of their corn in the field and focus instead on harvesting sunflowerseed. The SSC data, however, indicate that 99 percent of the final planted corn area of 4.28 million hectares was eventually harvested. (For more information, please contact Mark.Lindeman@fas.usda.gov).

Nov 9 2016 | Ukraine Corn: Official Harvest Reports Indicate Near-Record Yield
Ukraine corn production for 2016/17 is projected at 27.0 million tons, up 1.0 million from last month and up 3.7 million from last year’s drought-reduced crop, but 3.9 million below the record crop of 2013/14 when area reached a record level.

Nov 9 2016 | Russia, Ukraine, and Kazakhstan Wheat: Record or Near-Record Yields Reported
With the 2016 wheat harvest essentially complete, Russia, Ukraine, and Kazakhstan are all reporting record yields or record production. Above-average rainfall during the growing season, however, likely had a negative effect on wheat quality in all three countries.

Aug 12 2016 | Ukraine Wheat: Harvest Nearing Completion with Reported Record Yield
Ukraine wheat production for 2016/17 is forecast at 27.0 million metric tons (mmt), compared to 25.0 mmt last month and 27.3 mmt for 2015/16. The estimated harvested area is increased from 6.30 to 6.50 million hectares (including 0.27 million hectares in Crimea) but down 0.62 million from 2015/16. Severe autumn dryness curtailed planting and hampered establishment of winter crops. Despite the autumn drought, over 97 percent of the planted wheat area survived, and outstanding spring weather enabled the crop to thrive when vegetative growth resumed in March.

Jul 12 2016 | Ukraine Wheat: Yield Estimated at the Highest Level in 26 Years
Ukraine wheat production for 2016/17 is estimated at 25.0 million tons (mmt), up 1.0 mmt from last month but down 2.3 mmt from last year. Harvested area is estimated at 6.3 million hectares (mha) against 6.4 mha last month and 7.1 mha last year. The 12-percent year-to-year drop in area is attributed to severe fall dryness that curtailed planting and hampered the emergence and establishment of winter wheat in Ukraine. Outstanding spring weather enabled the crop to recover from the poor start, and 2016/17 wheat yield is estimated at 3.97 tons per hectare, surpassing the yield of last year’s bumper crop by 3.5 percent and second only to the 4.01 tons per hectare recorded for 1990/91. Winter wheat comprises about 97 percent of the country’s total wheat output, and harvest began in late June. All USDA crop production forecasts for Ukraine include estimated output from Crimea.

Jun 11 2016 | Ukraine Soybeans: Record Output Forecast Despite Lower than Expected Area
Ukraine soybean production for 2016/17 is forecast at a record 4.5 million metric tons (mmt), down 0.5 mmt from last month but 0.6 mmt above last year’s record output. Estimated area is decreased by 8.7 percent, to 2.1 million hectares, based on planting reports from the Ukrainian Ministry of Agrarian Policy and Food indicating lower sown area than previously estimated by USDA. Unusually wet weather throughout the country’s main soybean region likely hampered planting to some degree, but the main reason for the decrease in estimated area is the 15-percent yearto- year increase in estimated area sown to sunflowers, Ukraine’s most consistently profitable crop. The forecast soybean yield is 2.14 metric tons per hectare, down marginally from last month but up 16 percent from last year and 9.2 percent above the 5-year average.

Jun 11 2016 | Ukraine Sunfloweerseed: Area and Production Forecast at Record Levels
USDA forecasts Ukraine 2016/17 sunflowerseed production at 13.0 million metric tons (mmt), up 1.0 mmt from last month and up 1.7 mmt from last year. The forecast output also surpasses the previous record crop, harvested in 2013/14, by 1.4 mmt. The month-to-month increase is based mainly on a June 7 report from the Ukrainian Ministry of Agrarian Policy and Food citing a 15-percent increase in planted area compared to the same date last year. Harvested area is estimated at 6.0 million hectares (mha), up 0.5 mha from last month and up 0.8 mha from last year. Yield is forecast at 2.17 metric tons per hectare, nearly unchanged from both last month and last year and 12 percent above the 5-year average. The sown area of 2016/17 winter crops in Ukraine dropped by about 13 percent from last year due to severe fall dryness. As a result, the area available for spring-crop planting increased by about 1.2 mha. Between Ukraine’s four main spring crops – sunflowers, corn, soybeans, and barley – sunflowers are the most consistently profitable, and sunflowers accounted for about 60 percent of the surplus area available for 2016/17 spring crops. All USDA crop production forecasts for Ukraine include estimated output from Crimea.

May 10 2016 | Ukraine Wheat: 2016/17 Wheat Rebounds from Poor Fall Establishment
Ukraine wheat production for 2016/17 is forecast at 24.0 million tons compared to 27.3 million for 2015/16. Although severely dry autumn weather hampered the sowing campaign and reduced the fall-sown area of winter wheat by about 11 percent from the 2015/16 level, the crop has since benefited from generous precipitation and warm spring weather, and losses related to the fall drought are forecast to be low. Harvested area is estimated at 6.4 million hectares against 7.1 million last year. Yield is forecast at 3.75 tons per hectare, down 2.1 percent from last year’s near-record and surpassing the 5-year average by 8.3 percent. Yield will depend on favorable rains in May and June. Winter wheat comprises about 97 percent of the country’s total wheat output, and harvest will begin in late June. All USDA crop production forecasts for Ukraine include estimated output from Crimea.

Jan 12 2016 | Ukraine Corn: Harvest Approaches Completion
Ukraine corn production for 2015/16 is estimated at 23.5 million metric tons, up 0.5 million tons from last month but down 5.0 million tons from last year. The revision is based on an increase in the estimated harvested area, from 4.0 to 4.1 million hectares. Yield is estimated at 5.73 tons per hectare, virtually unchanged from last month but down 6.8 percent from last year.

Nov 10 2015 | Ukraine Corn: Harvest Reports Indicate Yield Down from Last Year
Ukraine corn production for 2015/16 is estimated at 23.0 million metric tons, down 2.0 million tons from last month and down 5.45 million tons from last year. The month-to-month decrease is based on harvest reports from the Ukraine Ministry of Agricultural Policy and Food.

Oct 9 2015 | Ukraine Corn: Harvest Reports Indicate Lower Yields in Western Regions
Ukraine corn production for 2015/16 is estimated at 25.0 million metric tons, down 2.0 million tons from last month and down 3.4 million tons from last year. The month-to-month decrease is based on harvest reports indicating lower than expected yield in parts of north-central and western Ukraine.

Oct 9 2015 | Ukraine Sunflowerseed: Harvest Reports Indicate Substantially Higher Yield
Ukraine sunflowerseed production for 2015/16 is estimated at 11.0 million metric tons, up 1.0 million tons from last month and up 0.8 million tons from last year. Estimated area is unchanged at 5.1 million hectares, down 0.2 million hectares from last year.

Sep 11 2015 | Ukraine Soybeans: Persistent Drought in Main Production Zone
Ukraine soybean production for 2015/16 is estimated at 4.0 million tons, down 0.7 million tons from last month but up 0.1 million tons from last year. Dryness has prevailed during much of the growing season in the western Ukraine, where over half of the country’s soybeans are grown. Yield is estimated at 1.90 tons per hectare, down 15 percent from last month, down 12 percent from last year, and 0.7 percent below the 5-year average. According to data from the Ministry of Agricultural Policy and Food, the soybean harvest was 12 percent complete as of September 7 compared to 11 percent by the same date last year. Reported yields are generally higher than last year in the southern and eastern territories where weather was favorable, but significantly lower in the west where precipitation was low. The soybean harvest campaign typically continues through late October.

Aug 12 2015 | Ukraine Wheat and Barley: Harvest Reports Indicate Outstanding Yields
USDA estimates Ukraine wheat production for 2015/16 at 25.5 million tons, up 1.5 million tons from last month and up 0.8 million tons from last year. The revised forecast would be Ukraine’s second-largest wheat harvest since 1990 and the second consecutive bumper crop. Yield is forecast at 3.64 tons per hectare, up 3.2 percent from last month, down 7.3 percent from last year, and 13 percent above the 5-year average. Barley output is estimated at 8.3 million tons, up 2.3 million tons from last month but down 1.2 million tons from last year. Harvested area for barley was increased from 2.5 million hectares to an estimated 2.9 million hectares based on data from the State Statistical Committee, but still stands at the lowest level in 25 years. The low area, however, will be partly offset by high yield, which is estimated at 2.86 tons per hectare, 21 percent above the 5-year average. Spring barley will account for about two-thirds of the total barley output this year. The wheat and barley crops benefited from plentiful precipitation and a lack of heat stress throughout the growing season. According to the Ministry of Agricultural Policy and Food, 92 percent of the Ukraine’s wheat area and 95 percent of the barley were harvested as of August 6. All USDA crop estimates include estimated output for Crimea. (For more information, please contact Mark.Lindeman@fas.usda.gov)

Jul 10 2015 | Ukraine Wheat: Beneficial Rain Further Boosts Yield Prospects
USDA estimates Ukraine wheat production for 2015/16 at 24.0 million tons, up 1.0 million tons from last month. The revised estimate is down only 0.8 million from last year’s bumper crop and would be the fourth-highest wheat harvest in Ukraine’s history. Harvested area is unchanged at 6.8 million hectares, up 0.5 million hectares from last year. Yield is estimated at 3.53 tons per hectare, up 4.3 percent from last month, down 10 percent from last year, and 9.2 percent above the 5-year average. The winter wheat crop, which accounts for over 95 percent of the country’s total wheat output, has benefited from favorable spring weather in most of the main production regions. Harvest was just underway at the end of June and will continue until mid- August. (For more information, please contact Mark.Lindeman@fas.usda.gov.)

Jun 10 2015 | Ukraine Wheat: Continued Improvement During May
USDA forecasts Ukraine wheat production for 2015/16 at 23.0 million tons, up 1.0 million tons from last month, but down 1.8 million tons from last year’s bumper crop. Harvested area is estimated at 6.8 million hectares against 6.3 million hectares last year. Yield is forecast at 3.38 tons per hectare, up 3.0 percent from last month, down 14 percent from last year, and 4.7 percent above the 5-year average. Severe dryness hampered Winter-wheat emergence and establishment last fall, and crop conditions were extremely poor when Winter wheat resumed vegetative growth in March. Winter wheat yield prospects improved significantly following beneficial rain in April and May although some territories still show evidence of dryness. Winter wheat accounts for over 95 percent of the country’s total wheat output. Harvest will begin in late June or early July. (For more information, please contact Mark.Lindeman@fas.usda.gov.)

May 12 2015 | Russia Wheat: 2015/16 Winter Wheat Improving, Spring Wheat Planting Underway
USDA forecasts Russia wheat production for 2015/16 at 53.5 million tons, down 5.6 million from last year. Harvested area is estimated at 25.0 million hectares against 23.6 million last year, and yield is forecast at 2.14 tons per hectare, down 14 percent from last year’s record but essentially matching the 5-year average. The area sown to winter wheat last autumn was about 12 percent higher than the previous year, but due to remarkably dry weather during fall crop establishment, the surviving area is estimated to increase by only 4 to 5 percent. The poor establishment conditions were reflected in satellitederived vegetation indices (NDVI), which indicated that winter-crop vigor at the end of April was substantially worse than normal in nearly every major winter-wheat territory in European Russia, with the exception of Krasnodar and Stavropol in the south. Winter crops benefited from generous April precipitation, however, and early May NDVI reflect substantial improvement in many territories in the Central District and Volga Valley. Potential yields will depend in large part on May and June weather. Winter wheat accounts for about two-thirds of Russia’s total wheat output. Spring-wheat planting was about 12 percent complete as of May 8 and is just underway in the Siberian and Ural Districts, which together account for about two-thirds of Russia’s spring wheat area. Soil-moisture conditions are favorable for planting in the main spring-wheat zone. Sown area is forecast to match last year’s level but harvested area is likely to increase from last year, when early snow in the Siberian and Ural Districts curtailed harvest. Sharp increases in the prices of fertilizer and imported agrichemicals will induce some farmers to reduce fertilizer application rates and switch to cheaper but less effective domestic chemicals. Many enterprises, however, enjoyed high profits from last year’s bumper harvest, which enabled them to purchase inputs last fall. Most independent commodity analysts do not envision a large year-to-year drop in the use of these materials. (For more information, please contact Mark.Lindeman@fas.usda.gov.)

Feb 10 2015 | Ukraine Corn: Bumper Harvest Stands as Second-Highest on Record
USDA estimates Ukraine corn production for 2014/15 at 28.5 million metric tons, up 1.45 million from last month and second only to last year’s record output of 30.9 million. The month-to-month change is based on preliminary data released by the State Statistical Committee of Ukraine. Harvested area is estimated at 4.6 million hectares, which, like the estimated output, is the second-highest level on record. Yield is estimated at 6.15 tons per hectare, up 4.8 percent from last month, down 3.9 percent from last year, and 13 percent above the 5-year average. A steady increase in the use of imported hybrid seed over the past ten years has been largely responsible for a concurrent increase in yield, and seed imports for the 2014/15 crop increased by about 20 percent from the previous year. The year-to-year drop in yield, despite the higher seed imports, is attributed to two factors, hot and dry weather conditions and high input prices. Although the overall weather during the growing season was not remarkably unfavorable, the corn crop in several key territories in central and south-central Ukraine was subject to stress due to hot and dry August weather. In addition, prices for mineral fertilizer and imported agricultural chemicals increased by an estimated 25 percent this season following a significant drop in the value of the hyrvna (UAH). As a result, imports of agricultural chemicals decreased by 15 percent from the previous year, including a 21-percent drop in herbicide imports, according to data from the Global Trade Information Service. (For more information, please contact Mark.Lindeman@fas.usda.gov.)

Dec 10 2014 | Ukraine Soybeans: Record Area, Record Yield, Record Output
Ukraine’s soybean harvest is on track to surpass last year’s record level by 37 percent. USDA estimates 2014/15 production at 3.8 million tons, up 0.3 million tons from last month and up 1.0 million from last year. The remarkable year-to-year increase in production was driven chiefly by a 30- percent increase in planted area, but this year’s estimated yield of 2.17 tons per hectare is a record as well, up 5.8 percent from last year’s record and 19 percent above the 5-year average.

Oct 10 2014 | Ukraine Corn: Harvest Reports Indicate Average Yield
USDA forecasts Ukraine corn production for 2014/15 at 25.0 million tons, down 1.0 million or 3.8 percent from last month and down 5.9 million or 19 percent from last year’s record output. Harvested area remains unchanged at 4.6 million hectares against 4.8 million last year. Yield is estimated at 5.43 tons per hectare, down 15 percent from last year’s near-record level and matching the 5-year average. According to data from the Ministry of Agriculture, the corn harvest was one-third complete as of October 3, with cumulative yield standing at 4.72 tons per hectare compared to 5.64 tons per hectare by the same date last year. Cumulative yield typically increases throughout October and November as the harvest campaign advances into the higher yielding north-central territories.

Jun 11 2013 | Ukraine Corn: Yield Forecast Increased From Last Month Based On Expanded Use of
USDA forecasts Ukraine corn production for 2014/15 at 27.0 million tons, up 1.0 million or 3.9 percent from last month but down 3.9 million or 13 percent from last year’s record output. Harvested area is estimated at 4.8 million hectares, virtually unchanged from last year’s record level. Planting is essentially complete and surface moisture conditions are favorable for crop emergence and establishment. Corn yield in Ukraine has increased significantly over the past ten years due in large part to enormous growth in the use of imported hybrid seed. Corn seed imports increased from about 6 thousand tons in 2003 to 46 thousand in 2013, and final imports for 2014 will likely surpass last year’s total by at least 20 percent. At the same time, however, prices for mineral fertilizer and imported agricultural chemicals (including herbicides, insecticides, and pesticides) have increased due to a significant drop in the value of the hyrvna (UAH), and local commodity analysts anticipate a reduction in the application rates of these products. USDA forecasts 2014/15 yield at 5.63 tons per hectare, 3.6 percent above the 5-year average but 12 percent below last year’s near-record level.

Jul 11 2013 | Ukraine Sunflowerseed: Localized Heat Reduces Yield Prospects in Eastern Ukraine
The USDA forecasts Ukraine sunflowerseed output for 2013/14 at 10.0 million tons, down 0.5 million or 5 percent from last month but up 1.0 million or 11 percent from last year. The decrease is attributed to unfavorably high temperatures in parts of Ukraine’s main sunflower zone beginning in early June and continuing through early July, while the sunflower crop was in the vegetative stage of development. Satellite-derived vegetative indices indicate that early-July crop conditions were below normal in parts of eastern and southern Ukraine, but above normal in the remainder of the country. Despite the month-to-month reduction, the forecast yield of 1.67 tons per hectare remains 5 percent above the 5-year average. Favorably dry weather during April and May allowed for planting of this year’s sunflower crop to proceed at a rapid pace and was essentially complete by early June. Harvested area is unchanged at 6.0 million hectares, matching last year’s level. July typically is a critical month for sunflowers because the crop is advancing through the flowering stage and is more vulnerable to damage in the event of excessive temperatures.

Aug 12 2013 | Ukraine Corn: Record Harvest Forecast for 2013/14
USDA forecasts Ukraine corn production for 2013/14 at a record 29.0 million tons, up 3.0 million tons or 12 percent from last month and up 8.1 million tons or 39 percent from last year. Harvested area is estimated at a record 4.8 million hectares, up from 4.4 million last year and surpassing the previous record of 4.5 million in 1963/64. Conditions in the main cornproduction region have been generally favorable. Precipitation has been adequate (but not as abundant as in 2011 when yield soared to a record 6.44 tons per hectare), and temperatures have not been excessively high. Yield for 2013/14 is forecast at 6.04 tons per hectare, up 26 percent from last year and 19 percent above the 5-year average. Harvest typically begins in early September.

Aug 12 2013 | Ukraine Wheat: Harvest Reports Indicate Above-Average Yield
USDA forecasts Ukraine wheat production for 2013/14 at 21.5 million tons, up 2.0 million tons or 10 percent from last month and up 5.7 million tons or 36 percent from last year. Harvested area is estimated at 6.5 million hectares, up 0.9 million from last year, which was marked by excessive fall dryness that destroyed over 15 percent of the winter wheat. (Ukraine’s winter wheat is planted in the fall and harvested the following summer.) Weather data and satellite imagery indicated deteriorating crop conditions in May following six consecutive weeks of dry weather and unusually high temperatures that depleted subsurface moisture reserves. The crop rebounded substantially during June with the timely arrival of beneficial rain. The harvest began in late June, about two weeks earlier than usual, and reports indicate above-average yields in most regions. Wheat yield for 2013/14 is estimated at 3.31 tons per hectare, up 18 percent from last year and 6 percent above the 5-year average.

Sep 12 2013 | Ukraine Sunflowerseed: Favorable August Weather Boosts Yield Prospects
The USDA forecasts Ukraine sunflowerseed output for 2013/14 at 11.5 million tons, up 1.1 million or 11 percent from last month and up 2.5 million or 28 percent from last year. Estimated harvested area is unchanged at 6.0 million hectares, matching last year’s level. The month-tomonth increase in estimated production is based on favorable August weather. Although temperatures have been above normal throughout much of the growing season, maximum daily temperatures were not high enough to place sunflowers under stress for an extended period of time, as occurred last season. This year’s crop benefited from the absence of heat-related stress combined with adequate subsurface soil moisture, and yield is estimated at a record 1.92 tons per hectare, 21 percent above the 5-year average.

Sep 11 2014 | Ukraine and Russia Corn: Estimated Production Reduced Based on Lower Reported Area
USDA has reduced estimated corn production for Ukraine and Russia based on official plantedarea for both countries and on the potential impact of hot, dry weather in some of the important production regions. Harvested area for Ukraine is estimated by USDA at 4.6 million hectares, down 0.1 million from last month and down 0.2 million from last year. Harvested area for Russia is estimated at a record 2.5 million hectares, down 0.1 million from last month but up 0.2 million from last year.

Dec 10 2013 | Ukraine Corn: Harvest Surpasses Previous Record by 30 Percent
The USDA forecasts Ukraine corn production for 2013/14 at a record 30.0 million tons, up 1.0 million or 3.4 percent from last month, up 9.1 million or 43 percent from last year, and 7.2 million above the previous record of 2011/12. Harvested area is estimated at a record 4.8 million hectares, up 0.4 million from last year. Generally favorable weather throughout the growing season combined with continued growth in the use of hybrid seed boosted yield to an estimated 6.25 tons per hectare, up 30 percent from last year and only 3 percent below the record level achieved two years ago. By the end of November, harvest was complete on 94 percent of the planted area with the pace of harvest winding down.

Jan 10 2014 | Ukraine Sunseed: Estimated Yield Surpasses Previous Record by 15 Percent
The USDA forecasts Ukraine sunflowerseed output for 2013/14 at 12.5 million tons, up 1.0 million or 8.6 percent from last month and up 3.5 million or 39 percent from last year. Yield is estimated at 2.08 tons per hectare, 15 percent above the previous record set in 2011/12 and 31 percent above the 5-year average. The estimated harvested area is unchanged at 6.0 million hectares, matching last year’s level. This year’s crop benefited from favorable temperatures during the growing season, especially the absence of heat-related stress, and the continued increase in the use of hybrid seed. Over the past ten years, imports of planting seed (chiefly hybrid seed) have increased ten-fold and yield has essentially doubled.

Feb 10 2014 | Ukraine Corn: Reported Harvest Shatters Previous Record
USDA forecasts Ukraine corn production for 2013/14 at a record 30.9 million tons, up 0.9 million or 3.0 percent from last month, up 10.0 million or 48 percent from last year, and 8.1 million above the previous record set in 2011/12. Harvested area is estimated at a record 4.8 million hectares, up 0.4 million from last year. Generally favorable weather throughout the growing season combined with continued growth in the use of hybrid seed boosted yield to an estimated 6.40 tons per hectare, up 34 percent from last year and nearly matching the record yield of 6.44 tons per hectare achieved two years ago. The rapid growth in the importation and use of hybrid corn seed began around 2003, and corn yield has nearly doubled over the past 10 years.

Feb 10 2014 | Ukraine Corn: Reported Harvest Shatters Previous Record
USDA forecasts Ukraine corn production for 2013/14 at a record 30.9 million tons, up 0.9 million or 3.0 percent from last month, up 10.0 million or 48 percent from last year, and 8.1 million above the previous record set in 2011/12. Harvested area is estimated at a record 4.8 million hectares, up 0.4 million from last year. Generally favorable weather throughout the growing season combined with continued growth in the use of hybrid seed boosted yield to an estimated 6.40 tons per hectare, up 34 percent from last year and nearly matching the record yield of 6.44 tons per hectare achieved two years ago. The rapid growth in the importation and use of hybrid corn seed began around 2003, and corn yield has nearly doubled over the past 10 years.

May 9 2014 | Ukraine Corn: Estimated Area Unchanged from Last Year
USDA forecasts Ukraine corn production for 2014/15 at 26.0 million tons, down 4.9 million or 16 percent from last year’s record output. Harvested area is estimated at a near-record 4.8 million hectares, essentially unchanged from last year. Yield is forecast at 5.42 tons per hectare, down 15 percent from last year’s near-record level but matching the 5-year average. Data from the Ministry of Agricultural Policy of Food indicate that planting is proceeding at a pace similar to the previous two years. As of May 5, sown area was reported at nearly 3.5 million hectares, about two-thirds of the official forecast. Prices for mineral fertilizer and imported agricultural chemicals (including herbicides, insecticides, and pesticides) have increased due to a significant drop in the value of the hyrvna (UAH), and local commodity analysts anticipate a reduction in the application rates of these products. Grain and oilseed producers will likely compensate in part for the higher prices with a variety of cost-cutting measures, including using cheaper but lower-quality chemicals and consolidating field operations in order to reduce fuel consumption.

May 9 2014 | Ukraine Wheat: Average Output Forecast
USDA forecasts Ukraine wheat production for 2014/15 at 20.0 million tons, down 2.3 million from last year but slightly above the 5-year average of 19.6 million. Harvested area is estimated at 6.3 million hectares against 6.6 million last year. The year-to-year decrease in area reflects a 5-percent drop in the area planted to wheat last fall. The Hydromet Center of Ukraine reports that the winter-wheat crop (which accounts for nearly all of the country’s total wheat output) is in very good condition. Satellite-derived vegetative indices indicate that winter-crop conditions as of April 30 are the best since 2008. Winter crops benefited from outstanding fall establishment conditions and low winter losses. Despite the excellent current conditions, USDA forecasts that yield will drop from last year’s level due to a likely reduction in the spring application of mineral fertilizers and a reduction in the use of herbicides and other agricultural chemicals. Yield is forecast at 3.17 tons per hectare, down 6.4 percent from last year but 3.6 percent above the 5-year average.

Jun 17 2014 | Ukraine Corn: Yield Forecast Increased From Last Month Based On Expanded Use of Hybrid Seed
USDA forecasts Ukraine cornproduction for 2014/15 at 27.0 million tons, up 1.0 million or 3.9 percent from last month but down 3.9 million or 13 percent from last year’s record output. Harvested area is estimated at 4.8 million hectares, virtually unchanged from last year’s record level. Planting is essentially complete and surface moisture conditions are favorable or crop emergence and establishment. Corn yield in Ukraine has increased significantly over the past ten years due in large part to enormous growth in the use of imported hybrid seed. Corn seed imports increased from about 6 thousand tons in 2003 to 46 thousand in 2013, and final imports for 2014 will likely surpass last year’s total by at least 20 percent. At the same time, however, prices for mineral fertilizer and imported agricultural chemicals (including herbicides, insecticides, and pesticides) have increased due to a significant drop in the value of the hyrvna (UAH), and local commodity analysts anticipate a reduction in the application rates of these products. USDA forecasts 2014/15 yield at 5.63 tons per hectare, 3.6 percent above the 5-year average but 12 percent below last year’s near-record level.

May 13 2013 | Ukraine Wheat: Yield Prospects Remain Favorable in Early May
The USDA forecasts Ukraine wheat production for 2013/14 at 22.0 million tons, up 6.2 million or 40 percent from last year. Early-May conditions are generally good for winter wheat, which comprises more than 95 percent of the country’s total wheat output. Harvested area is estimated at 6.6 million hectares, up nearly 1.0 million or 17 percent from last year, which was marked by excessive fall dryness that destroyed more than 15 percent of the winter wheat. (Ukraine’s winter wheat is planted in the fall and harvested the following summer.) Establishment conditions for the 2013/14 crop were outstanding and winter frost damage was negligible. Current surface- and subsoil-moisture levels are favorable in nearly every territory except Crimea and Kherson in south-central Ukraine and Luhansk in the east. Because of a late spring, winter crops broke dormancy later than usual and development is roughly two weeks behind normal. The cool March weather, however, has not had a significant negative impact on yield prospects to date. Satellite-derived vegetative indices as of April 30, indicate better-than-average conditions in the major production region of southern and eastern Ukraine, where crops resumed vegetative growth in late March or early April. The Normalized Difference Vegetative Indices (NDVI) indicate below-normal plant vigor in north-central and western Ukraine, which could be attributed to the temperature-related delays in development rather than unfavorable conditions or a reduction in potential yield. Wheat yield for 2013/14 is forecast at 3.33 tons per hectare, up 19 percent from last year and 7 percent above the 5-year average. The forecast yield is based on conditions to date and the assumption of normal weather during the remainder of the growing season. Final yield will hinge largely on May and early-June weather. The two standard potential threats routinely voiced by farmers at this time of year are (1) a sudden and significant increase in temperatures, and (2) sustained dryness during May. (For more information, please contact Mark Lindeman at 202-690-0143.)

May 13 2013 | Ukraine Corn: Record Harvest Forecast for 2013/14
The USDA forecasts Ukraine corn production for 2013/14 at a record 26.0 million tons, up 5.1 million or 24 percent from last year. High domestic consumption of corn (driven by expanding hog and poultry production) and the crop’s attractiveness as an export commodity will contribute to an estimated year-to-year increase in area. Harvested area is estimated at a record 4.7 million hectares, up from 4.4 million last year and surpassing the previous record of 4.5 million in 1963/64. Year-to-year fluctuations notwithstanding, corn output has been increasing sharply since 2000. The escalating level of production is attributed chiefly to improved technology, specifically the increased use of hybrid seed. Yield for 2013/14 is forecast at 5.53 tons per hectare, second only to 6.44 tons per hectare for 2011/12 and 9 percent above the five-year average. Corn planting was about half finished by the beginning of May and will be largely complete by the end of the month. (For more information, please contact Mark Lindeman at 202-690-0143.)

Nov 9 2012 | Ukraine Sunseed: Higher Estimated Output for 2011/12 Based on Reported Meal Exports
The USDA forecasts Ukraine sunflowerseed output for 2011/12 at a record 10.5 million tons, up 1.0 million or 11 percent from last month. The increase is based chiefly on reported exports of sunflowerseed and meal. The revised production estimate reflects the estimated amount of sunflowerseed required for exports and domestic consumption of seed, and the amount of crush required to satisfy the demand for exports and domestic consumption of meal. According to data from the Ukrainian customs service, 3.84 million tons of meal and 0.28 million tons of seed were exported for marketing year 2011/12. (For more information, please contact Mark Lindeman at 202-690-0143.)

Sep 12 2012 | Ukraine Sunflowerseed: Estimated Yield Reduced Following Excessive July Heat
USDA forecasts Ukraine sunflowerseed production for 2012/13 at 8.5 million tons, down 0.7 million or 8 percent from last month and down 1.0 million or 11 percent from last year. Harvested area is estimated at 6.0 million hectares, up 0.2 million from last year. Yield is forecast at 1.42 tons per hectare, down 6 percent from the 5-year average.Weather was unusually hot during June, July, and August in Ukraine’s main sunseed region. The heat was accompanied by below-normal precipitation during much of the growing season, but the most significant weather event was the excessive late-July and early-August heat that prevailed as the sunflower crop advanced through the flowering stage. According to Ministry of Agriculture data, sunflowerseed harvest was 13 percent complete by September 4 with yield roughly 25 percent lower, compared to the same date last year. Harvest will continue throughout October. (For more information, please contact Mark Lindeman at 202-690-0143.)

Sep 12 2012 | Ukraine Soybeans: Harvest Forecast Near Record Despite Heat and Dryness
Ukraine soybean production for 2012/13 is forecast at 2.2 million tons, down 0.5 million from last month and down about 0.1 million from last year. Harvested area is estimated at a record 1.3 million hectares against 1.1 million last year. Yield is forecast at 1.69 tons per hectare, down from 1.92 tons last month. The month-to-month decrease in estimated yield is attributed to excessive heat during July and August throughout the main production zone combined with below-normal precipitation during much of the growing season.Soybean production in Ukraine has increased ten-fold over the past 10 years, driven mainly by rapidly expanding area but also to a steady and significant increase in yield. The crop’s popularity is due to several factors, including high profitability relative to grains, and strong domestic demand from the crushing industry and the poultry and livestock sectors. (For more information, please contact Mark Lindeman at 202-690-0143.)

Aug 10 2012 | Ukraine Sunseed: Forecast Yield Reduced Following Excessive July Heat
The USDA forecasts Ukraine sunflowerseed production for 20121/13 at 9.2 million tons, down 0.3 million or 3 percent from both last month and last year. Harvested area is estimated at 6.0 million hectares, up 0.2 million from last year. Yield is forecast at 1.53 tons per hectare (t/ha), against 1.58 t/ha last month, 1.64 t/ha last year, and the 5-year average of 1.61 t/ha. June and July weather was unusually hot in Ukraine’s main sunseed region, with below-normal precipitation. The revised USDA estimated yield is slightly below the final estimated yield for 2010/11, when excessive early-August heat damaged the sunflower crop as it advanced through the flowering stage. The use of hybrid sunflower seed continues to increase in Ukraine. The expanding use of hybrid seed is the main reason for the overall increase in sunseed yield over the past ten years. (For more information, please contact Mark Lindeman at 202-690-0143.)

Jul 11 2012 | Ukraine Corn: Excessive June Heat Misses Prime Production Region
The USDA estimates Ukraine corn production for 2012/13 at 24.0 million tons, unchanged from last month and up 1.2 million from last year. Harvested area is estimated at 4.5 million hectares, up almost 1.0 million from last year, and yield is forecast at 5.33 tons per hectare against 6.44 tons last year and the 5-year average of 4.91 tons per hectare. Although hot weather prevailed in Ukraine during much of the second half of June, corn in the prime production zone likely escaped significant temperature damage. Ukraine corn typically does not reach the highly temperature-sensitive reproductive stage before mid-July, and maximum daily temperatures – while significantly above normal – likely did not reach a point to cause significant damage at this stage in the crop’s development. (For more information, please contact Mark Lindeman at 202-690-0143.)

May 10 2012 | Ukraine Wheat: Forecast Production Down Sharply From Last Year
USDA forecasts Ukraine wheat production for 2012/13 at 13.0 million tons, down 9.1 million tons or 41 percent from last year. The decrease is attributed chiefly to severe fall drought that hampered emergence and establishment of winter crops throughout Ukraine. Localized frost further damaged the already weakened plants in parts of southern and eastern Ukraine. Harvested area is estimated at 5.3 million hectares against 6.7 million last year. An estimated 25 percent of the reported planted area was destroyed due to the combination of excessive fall dryness and frost damage.Analysts from USDA’s Foreign Agricultural Service conducted crop assessment travel throughout the main wheat production zone in mid-April. The team observed that crop conditions varied significantly from field to field, depending on the planting date, crop rotation, and technology. Overall conditions, however, were not good. Satellite derived vegetative indices from late April are consistent with the poor conditions observed by the team earlier in the month. Wheat yield is forecast at 2.45 tons per hectare, 26 percent below last year and 18 percent below the five-year average. Early spring weather was favorable for the development of winter grains as they broke dormancy and resumed vegetative growth, but local specialists indicate that even with continued favorable weather the crops are unlikely to fully compensate for the remarkably poor fall conditions. (For more information, please contact Mark Lindeman at 202-690-0143.)

Jan 12 2012 | Ukraine Sunseed: Area and Production Estimates Revised
The USDA has revised its estimates of Ukraine sunseed area and production for the marketing years 2005/06 through 2011/12 in an effort to more closely reflect actual output. The USDA revisions were based chiefly on exports of sunflower oil, meal, and seed, which are reported by the State Customs Service of Ukraine to the Global Trade Information Service and published in the Global Trade Atlas. Yield was estimated based on analysis of weather, yield models, and SSC data, and harvested area was derived from the production and yield estimates.Ukrainian law requires agricultural enterprises to follow approved crop rotations in an effort to reduce the incidence of soil-borne fungal disease caused by too-frequent planting of sunflowers, a consistently and highly profitable crop. These restrictions essentially restrict many farmers from planting as much sunseed as they would like, and has resulted in the likely under-reporting of sunseed area and production to the State Statistical Committee of Ukraine (SSC). Note that sunseed is the only commodity for which the USDA does not adopt the area and production data from the State Statistical Committee of Ukraine (SSC). The USDA considers SSC data to be generally reliable and continues to use final SSC numbers as the basis for official area and production data for all other Ukrainian oilseeds and grains. (For additional information, please contact Mark Lindeman at 202-690-0143.)

Jan 12 2012 | Ukraine Corn: Ministry Harvest Reports Indicate Enormous Crop
The USDA estimates Ukraine corn production for 2011/12 at a record 22.5 million tons, up 1.5 million or 7 percent from last month’s record forecast, and up 10.6 million or 89 percent from last year. Yield is estimated at a record 6.43 tons per hectare, up 43 percent from last year. Harvested area is estimated at 3.5 million hectares, unchanged from last month but up 0.9 million from last year. Favorable weather enabled the corn harvest to continue into late December. Last year, by comparison, harvest was essentially finished by December 1.Corn yield has doubled over the past ten years, and the estimated yield for 2011/12 surpasses the previous record (5.02 tons per hectare in 2009/10) by nearly 30 percent. The remarkable reported yield is consistent with the favorable weather that has prevailed throughout the growing season, but the major reason for the steady 10-year climb in yield is the continued expansion in the use of hybrid seed. Imported hybrids account for about 70 percent of Ukraine’s corn seed, and local commodity analysts indicate that hybrid use will continue to increase. Yields have also benefited from more efficient fertilization techniques and steady improvement in the quality of harvest machinery. (For more information, contact Mark Lindeman at 202-690-0143.)

Oct 12 2011 | Ukraine Corn: Harvest Reports Confirm Forecast of Record Output
The USDA estimates Ukraine corn production for 2011/12 at a record 21.0 million tons, up 3 million or 17 percent from last month’s then record estimate, and up 9.1 million or 76 percent from last year. Yield is estimated at a record 6.0 tons per hectare, up 33 percent from last year. Harvested area is estimated at 3.5 million hectares, up 0.9 million from last year and the highest level since the Khrushchev era. The 32 percent year-to-year jump in area is attributable to several factors: high profitability (currently the most profitable grain, according to local specialists), strong domestic demand for feed corn, and a growing availability of shorter-season varieties that has enabled farmers to expand the production zone northward.Corn yield has doubled over the past ten years. The record yield forecast for 2011/12 is consistent with the favorable weather that has prevailed throughout the growing season, but the major reason for the steady climb in yield is the continued expansion in the use of hybrid seed. Imported hybrids account for about 70 percent of Ukraine’s corn seed, and local commodity analysts indicate that hybrid use will continue to increase. Yields have also benefited from more efficient fertilization techniques and steady improvement in the quality of harvest machinery. (For more information, contact Mark Lindeman at 202-690-0143.)

Aug 12 2011 | Ukraine Wheat: Ministry Reports Yield Up 20 Percent from Last Year
The USDA forecasts Ukraine wheat production for 2011/12 at 21.0 million tons, up 3.0 million or 17 percent from last month and up 4.1 million or 24 percent from last year. Estimated area is increased by 0.1 million hectares to 6.7 million, against 6.3 million hectares last year based on data from the State Statistical Committee. Yield is estimated at 3.13 tons per hectare, up 15 percent from last month and up 17 percent from last year. According to harvest-progress reports from the Ministry of Agrarian Policy, bunker-weight yield (prior to cleaning and drying) is up about 20 percent from last year as of August 5, with harvest 91 percent complete. Due to excessive rain during the harvest campaign, higher-than-normal grain moisture could result in lower final net weight than usual. The harvest data indicate that producers were able to achieve high wheat yields despite persistent spring dryness and unfavorable harvest weather. (For more information, contact Mark Lindeman at 202-690-0143.)

Jul 12 2011 | Ukraine Wheat: Persistent Spring Dryness Reversed by Excessive July Rain
The USDA forecasts Ukraine wheat production for 2011/12 at 18.0 million tons, down 1.0 million or 5 percent from last month but up 1.2 million or 7 percent from last year. Estimated area is increased by 0.1 million hectares to 6.6 million compared to 6.3 million hectares last year. Yield is estimated at 2.73 tons per hectare, down 7 percent from last month but 2 percent from last year, but 5 percent above the 5-year average. Specialists from the USDA Foreign Agricultural Service observed during June crop-assessment travel that plant density on many wheat fields was lower than average. The thin due to cool early-spring weather and persistent spring dryness. Seasonal precipitation (from March through mid-June) was substantially below normal and consistent with satellite-derived vegetative indices indicating reduced vegetative vigor in late May and early June, when winter grains are advancing through the reproductive stage and the vegetative indices typically reach peak values. Yield prospects for wheat were further reduced following excessive rain during the first week of July that interrupted harvest activity and resulted in lodging in many fields. (For more information, contact Mark Lindeman at 202-690-0143.)

Jul 12 2011 | Ukraine Sunflowerseed: Record Production, Record Area, Record Yield
The USDA forecasts Ukraine sunseed production for 2011/12 at a record 7.5 million tons, up 0.5 million or 7 percent from last month and up 0.7 million or 11 percent from last year. The increase is based mainly on an increase in estimated area, from 4.5 million hectares last month to a record 4.7 million hectares for July, and up 0.2 million from last year. Yield is forecast at 1.60 tons per hectare, up 3 percent from last month, up 7 percent from last year, and slightly surpassing the record 1.56 tons per hectare achieved in 2008/09. During June crop-assessment travel, specialists from the USDA Foreign Agricultural Service observed that sunflower development was about ten days behind average due to dryness-related planting delays, but crops were in generally good condition and producers maintain that the late planting will not negatively affect yield. Local commodity analysts indicate that the use of hybrid seed continues to increase, and sunseed remains the most consistently profitable crop in Ukraine. (For more information, contact Mark Lindeman at 202-690-0143.)

May 11 2011 | Strong Prices Lead to Rise in Total Foreign Corn Prospects
Total foreign corn production for the 2011/12 marketing year is forecast at a record 525 million tons, up 5 percent from 2010/11. Area is also forecast at a record 131.7 million hectares, up 3 percent from last year. Yield is forecast at a near-trend 3.98 tons per hectare at the beginning of the season in the Northern Hemisphere.Strong world prices have encouraged planting in many countries. US#3 corn FOB Gulf averaged US$255 per ton from November-to-January when many farmers were making their planting decisions. November-to-January prices are up from US$180 last year and US$137 for the 9-year average. A drop in total coarse grain and wheat production in 2010/11 caused by weather problems which led to lower-than-trend yields has resulted in a tightness in stock levels contributing to the high prices. The price rise is partly attributed to strong demand in Asia for corn to feed livestock, but also strong demand in the United States as a feed stock for producing ethanol to blend with gasoline. (For additional information, contact Paul Provance at 202-720-0873.)

Aug 12 2010 | Ukraine Wheat: Lower Harvest for 2010 Due to Unfavorable Weather and Tight Funds
The USDA forecasts Ukraine wheat production for 2010/11 at 17.0 million tons, down 3.0 million or 15 percent from last month and down 3.9 million or 19 percent from last year. Estimated area is unchanged at 6.45 million hectares against 6.75 million last year. Yield is estimated at 2.64 tons per hectare, down 15 percent from both last month and last year, and down 10 percent from the five-year average. Official harvest-progress data as of August 6 has wheat output at 17.1 million tons (bunker weight, prior to cleaning and drying), with harvest about 95 percent complete. Output by the same date last year stood at 18.7 million tons, with harvest only 88 percent complete. Agricultural officials attribute the year-to-year drop in yield chiefly to unfavorable weather, including heavy rain in southern Ukraine during the harvest campaign, but independent specialists also cite a reduction in the use of mineral fertilizers and plant-protection chemicals due to a lack of funds following last year's financial crisis. (For more information, contact Mark Lindeman at 202-690-0143.)

Aug 12 2010 | Ukraine Corn: Excessive August Temperatures Reduce Yield Prospects
The USDA forecasts Ukraine corn production for 2010/11 at 11.5 million tons, down 1.5 million or 12 percent from last month but up 1.0 million or 10 percent from last year. Despite the month-to-month decrease, estimated production remains at a record level due to the record area of 2.6 million hectares, which is unchanged from last month but up 0.5 million hectares from last year. Forecast yield is reduced from 5.00 to 4.42 tons per hectare, down 12 percent from both last month and last year but still slightly above the 5-year average of 4.34 tons per hectare. Unusually high temperatures beginning in early August will likely have an unfavorable impact on corn yield this year. Although hot weather prevailed earlier in the season as well, temperatures were not significantly or persistently higher than last year, and subsurface moisture reserves were adequate following abundant spring precipitation. Since August 1, however, daily maximum temperatures have frequently exceeded 38 degrees Celsius (100 degrees Fahrenheit) throughout Ukraine's main corn-production region. (For more information, contact Mark Lindeman at 202-690-0143.)

Jun 10 2010 | Ukraine Corn: Record Production Forecast for 2010/11
USDA forecasts Ukraine corn production for 2010/11 at 13.0 million tons, up 1.5 million or 13 percent from last month and up 2.5 million or 24 percent from last year. Both area and production are estimated at record levels, and the forecast yield of 5.0 tons per hectare matches the record set last season. Local commodity analysts were forecasting an increase in corn area for 2010/11 based on high prices relative to other major grains, and official planting data indicate that planted area had reached 2.7 million tons by June 4, up approximately 0.4 million from the same date last year. Corn yield has benefited from a steady improvement in technology in recent years, including an increase in the use of hybrid seed. (For more information, contact Mark Lindeman at 202-690-0143.)

Dec 10 2009 | Ukraine: Corn Harvest Data Indicate Record Yield
The USDA estimates Ukraine corn production for 2009/10 at 10.5 million tons, up 0.5 million or 5 percent from last month but down 0.9 million or 8 percent from last year. Area is estimated at 2.1 million hectares, down 0.3 million from last year. With harvest more than 90 percent complete, reported yield stands at 5.00 tons per hectare, up 5 percent from last year's record. Final output is unlikely to match last year's record 11.4 million tons due to a 13-percent reduction in area, but the estimated harvest will be the second-highest in Ukraine's history. Corn yields have increased by roughly 60 percent over the past ten years, due in large part to a substantial increase in the use of hybrid seed. (For more information, contact Mark Lindeman at 202-690-0143, lindeman@fas.usda.gov.)

Jun 10 2009 | Ukraine: Dryness in Central and Eastern Regions Reduces Wheat Prospects
Ukraine wheat production for 2009/10 is forecast at 18.0 million tons, down 7.9 million or 31 percent from last year and down 1.0 million or 5percent from last month. Harvested area is estimated at 6.6 million hectares, down 0.5 million or 6 percent from last year and unchanged from last month. Yield is forecast at 2.73 tons per hectare (t/ha), against 2.88 t/ha last month and last year's outstanding 3.67 t/ha. Winter wheat accounts for approximately 95 percent of total wheat production in Ukraine. The month-to-month reduction in forecast yield is attributed to severe spring dryness. Analysis of satellite-derived vegetative indices indicates below-average yields for 2009/10 wheat in most of the country's major wheat producing regions, especially in eastern Ukraine. Although the 2008-09 winter was generally mild and winter crops resumed vegetative growth in good condition, April was excessively dry throughout Ukraine. South-central Ukraine received beneficial rainfall in May, but subsurface soil moisture reserves remain relatively low in western,central, and eastern Ukraine. Tight credit and other financial difficulties likely reduced application of fertilizer and plant-protection chemicals on both winter and spring crops. Weather, however, will remain the main yield determinant. (For more information, contact Mark Lindeman at 202-690-0143.)

May 19 2009 | World 2009/10 Crop Area and Production Forecasts
The initial USDA country-level area and production estimates for 2009/10 grains, oilseeds, andcotton are provided this month. In previous years, only the initial grain estimates were releasedin May, but this year estimates for oilseeds and cotton are provided as well.World wheat area for 2009/10 is estimated at 224 million hectares, down less than 1 percentfrom last year. International prices in September 2008, when many Northern Hemisphere wheatproducers were deciding if they would plant, had declined from a year earlier while prices forcorn and soybeans were stronger. Wheat production is forecast at 658 million metric tons, down25 million tons from 2008/09, when excellent growing conditions occurred in many of the majorproducers.World corn area is forecast at 156 million hectares for 2009/10, unchanged from the previousyear. Reports of farmers foregoing corn planting because of high input costs have been receivedfrom many countries. Corn area is not increasing even though corn prices were high relative towheat, and to a lesser extent soybean, during December to February when many farmers weremaking their corn planting decisions. Corn production is forecast virtually unchanged at 788million tons as corn planting in the Northern Hemisphere is underway.World soybean area is forecast at 99 million hectares up 2 million. Production is forecast at 242million tons, up 29 million from 2008/09. Much of the increase results from an expectation ofrecovery in Argentina and Brazil which suffered from extreme drought in major producing areas.World international soybean/corn price ratios from October through December favored corn, buthigher production costs have favored soybeans, which require fewer inputs. (For moreinformation, contact Paul Provance 202-720-0873.)

May 19 2009 | Ukraine: Favorable Prospects for 2009/10 Wheat Despite Credit Crunch
The USDA estimates Ukraine wheat production for 2009/10 at 19.0 million tons, down 6.9million or 27 percent from last year. Harvested area is estimated at 6.6 million hectares, down0.5 million or 6 percent from last year, and yield at 2.88 tons per hectare against last year'soutstanding 3.67. Ukraine's winter wheat crop was planted in October and will be harvested inJuly. Winter wheat was sown on a reported 6.5 million hectares, down only 2 percent from lastyear despite plunging feed-wheat prices prior to the fall sowing campaign. Winterkill isexpected to be relatively low: the Hydromel Center of Ukraine forecasts that 4 percent of the'sown area will require re-seeding. Winter wheat accounts for approximately 95 percent of totalwheat production in Ukraine.Crop-assessment analysts from the USDA Foreign Agricultural Service observed very goodwinter-crop conditions in early April. Subsequent dryness has reduced crop vigor to somedegree, but wheat was well established prior to the dry weather and has been able to tap into theadequate subsoil moisture reserves. Temperatures dipped below freezing throughout the mainwheat production region in April, but weather data indicate that only in eastern Ukraine wereminimum temperatures low enough to cause localized damage to winter wheat.According to several commodity analysts and farm directors interviewed by the FAS team, alarge share of the country's agricultural enterprises are essentially self-financing, and over halfplan to maintain or increase fertilizer use on winter grains despite tight credit, high interest rates,and a near-total reduction in State subsidies. Nevertheless, many producers will reduce overallinput use on both winter and spring crops in an effort to offset higher prices for fuel, imported'seed, fertilizer, and plant-protection chemicals. (For more information, contact Mark Lindemanat 202-690-0143.)

Sep 12 2008 | Ukraine Wheat and Barley: Production Soars But Quality Drops
The USDA estimates Ukraine wheat production for 2008/09 at 24.5 million tons, up 2.5 millionor 11 percent from last month and up 10.6 million or 76 percent from last year. Area isestimated at 7.0 million hectares, up 1.1 million from last year. Barley output is estimated at12.5 million tons, up 0.5 million or 4 percent from last month and up 6.5 million or 108 percentfrom last year, when severe drought slashed yields of early spring crops. Estimated barley areais unchanged from last year at 4.1 million hectares. Harvest-progress reports from the Ministryof Agriculture cite year-to-year yield increases of approximately 50 percent for wheat and 100percent for barley as of late August. Furthermore, the threat of significant flood-related harvestlosses in western Ukraine never materialized: 99 percent of the sown area of both wheat andbarley was harvested. The abundant rain that boosted yield also contributed to a reduction in grain quality. Usually,but not always, wheat quality is lower in years of high yield, and a shortage of suitable grainstoragefacilities for this year's wheat crop - the highest in nearly 20 years - will likelyexacerbate the problem. According to preliminary data from the Ministry of Agricultural Policyof Ukraine, the share of food-quality wheat (which typically consists of 1st- through 3rd-classwheat) dropped from 40 percent in 2007/08 to 11 percent this year, while the share of 6th classwheat increased from 20 to 54 percent. (For more information, contact Mark Lindeman at 202-690-0143.)

Aug 12 2008 | Ukraine: Outstanding Yields Reported for Wheat and Barley
The USDA estimates Ukraine wheat production for 2008/09 at 22.0 million tons, up 1.0 million or 5 percent from last month and up 8.1 million or 58 percent from last year. Area is estimated at 6.7 million hectares, down 0.1 million from last month due to the likelihood of flood-related damage to cropland in western Ukraine. Barley output is estimated at 12.0 million tons, up 1.5 million or 14 percent from last month and up 6.0 million or 100 percent from last year. Estimated area is unchanged from last year at 4.1 million hectares. The enormous year-to-year jump in output for both crops is attributed chiefly to remarkably improved weather compared to last year, when persistent and excessive dryness severely affected yield, especially for spring barley. As of August 4, with harvest approximately 80 percent complete, reported wheat yield is up 48 percent for wheat and 106 percent for barley compared to the same date last year. (For more information, contact Mark Lindeman at 202-690-0143.)

Jun 10 2008 | Ukraine: Wheat Output Forecast to Increase Over 50 Percent from Last Year
The USDA estimates Ukraine wheat production for 2008/09 at 21.0 million tons, up 1.0 millionor 5 percent from last month and up 7.1 million or 51 percent from last year. Area is estimated at6.8 million hectares. The sown area of winter wheat, which typically accounts for 90 to 95percent of total wheat area, rose by about 15 percent from last season, and winter losses wereextremely low. Crops have benefited from generally favorable weather, including generous andwell-distributed precipitation, and analysis of satellite-derived vegetative indices indicates highpotential yield for winter crops throughout central, southern, and eastern Ukraine. Wheat yield isestimated at 3.09 tons per hectare - lower than the yields achieved during the late 1980's withthe help of heavy government subsidies, but matching some of the higher yields of recent years.The Ukraine wheat harvest typically begins around July 1 in the southern production region.(For more information, contact Mark Lindeman at 202-690-0143.)

May 9 2008 | Ukraine: Wheat Output Forecast to Increase by Over 6 Million Tons
The USDA estimates Ukraine wheat production for 2008/09 at 20.0 million tons, up 6.1 million or 44 percent from last year. The sown area for winter wheat, which typically accounts for 90 to 95 percent of total wheat area, increased by 14 percent over last season. Winter losses were extremely low and current crop conditions are excellent. Barley production is forecast at 10.0 million tons, up 4.0 million or 67 percent from last year, and harvested area is estimated at 4.2 million hectares, up 0.1 million from last year. Yields for both crops are forecast to rebound significantly from last year, when output was sharply reduced following persistent and excessive dryness throughout southern and eastern Ukraine. (For more information, contact Mark Lindeman at 202-690-0143.)

May 9 2008 | World Wheat Production Forecast Dramatically Higher
Despite a drought which has devastated the Middle Eastern winter wheat crop, the USDA's initial estimate for world total wheat production for 2008/09 is dramatically higher than the estimate for last year. It is forecast at 656 million tons, up 8 percent from 2007/08. Estimated area is up 3 percent at 225 million hectares and average yield is forecast up 5 percent at 2.92 tons per hectare. Large increases in production are forecast for the European Union, the United States, Ukraine, and Australia. (For more information, contact Paul Provance at 202-720-0873.)

Nov 13 2007 | Ukraine: Above-Average Corn Crop Despite Drought in Key Southern Region
The USDA estimates Ukraine corn production for 2007/08 at 7.0 million tons, up 0.5 millionfrom last month and up 0.6 million from last year. Harvested area is estimated at 1.9 millionhectares, up 0.2 million from last year. Planted area increased by 15 percent from last year, to2.2 million hectares, but a key question surrounding the 2007 harvest, and one unanswered byofficial progress reports, is how much of the area originally planted for grain was instead cut for'silage due to unfavorable weather and low yield prospects in southern Ukraine. Above-normaltemperatures, including frequently excessive heat at critical growth stages, prevailed throughout'southern Ukraine from mid-May through early September.

Aug 13 2007 | Ukraine Barley: Estimated Barley Yield Lowest in Over 40 Years
Persistent drought and excessive heat have driven estimated Ukraine barley yield to the lowestlevel since 1963. Production of barley for 2007/08 is estimated at 6.2 million tons, down 1.3million from last month and down 5.2 million from last years bumper crop. Yield is estimatedat 1.41 tons per hectare against 1.60 tons last month and 2.18 tons last year. The spring barleycrop, which typically accounts for about 90 percent of the countrys barley output, has sufferedfrom drought throughout the growing season. With harvest about 85 percent complete as ofAugust 2, official harvest reports indicate yield down 40 percent from the same date last year.(For more information, contact Mark Lindeman at 202-690-0143.)

Jul 12 2007 | Ukraine: Further Drop in Yield Prospects for Wheat and Barley
Excessive dryness in Ukraines main grain production region has reduced estimated wheat andbarley output. Cumulative precipitation from October through May was the lowest in over tenyears in some of the countrys key wheat territories, and the dryness was accompanied byexcessive heat during May. June rainfall arrived too late to benefit crops in southern Ukraine.

Jun 11 2007 | Ukraine: Drought Reduces Yield Prospects for 2007/08 Wheat
Persistent dryness in nearly every region of the country has reduced the forecast 2007/08 wheatyield for Ukraine. Wheat production for 2007/08 is estimated at 14.0 million tons, down 3.5million from last month and matching last years output. Area is estimated at 6.0 millionhectares, unchanged from last month and up 0.5 million from last year. Cumulativeprecipitation from October through May is the lowest in over ten years in some of the countryskey wheat territories, and the dryness has been accompanied by excessive heat in recent weeks.

May 14 2007 | Ukraine Wheat Condition Favorable with Higher Area
The USDA estimates production of Ukraine wheat for 2007/08 at 17.5 million tons (against 14.0million last year), from harvested area of 6.0 (5.5) million hectares. Winter wheat accounts forabout 95 percent of total wheat output. Yield is estimated at 2.92 tons per hectare, 15 percentabove last year and 13 percent above the 5-year average.

Dec 12 2006 | Ukraine: Higher Estimated Area Boosts Corn Forecas
USDA estimates Ukraine corn production for 2006/07 at 6.5 million tons, up 0.5 million from last month but down 0.7 million from last year. Area is estimated at 1.7 million hectares, up 0.2 million from last month and nearly equal to last year's level. As of November 24, farmers had harvested 6.2 million tons of corn from 1.63 million hectares, or 86 percent of planted area. Official data indicate that as much as 1.75 million hectares, or 93 percent of planted area, is likely to be harvested despite earlier concerns that nearly 20 percent of planted area would be cut for silage (rather than harvested for grain) because of excessive August heat in eastern and southern Ukraine, the country's main corn-production region. Yields, however, were higher than expected due in part to a recent and significant increase in the use of hybrid planting seed, as indicated by data from the State Statistical Committee of Ukraine. USDA estimates Ukraine's 2006/07 corn yield at 3.82 tons per hectares, down from last year's record 4.31 tons per hectare but still above average despite the unfavorable August growing conditions. (For more information, contact Mark Lindeman at 202-690-0143

Aug 11 2006 | Ukraine: Harvest Reports Indicate Average Yield for Wheat and Barley
The USDA estimates Ukraine wheat production for 2006/07 at 13.5 million tons, up 0.5 million or 4 percent from last month but down 5.2 million or 28 percent from last year. Barley production is estimated at 11.5 million tons, up 0.8 million or 7 percent from last month and up 2.5 million or 28 percent from last year. Outstanding spring weather enabled winter wheat to recover from unfavorable fall and winter weather and boosted yield prospects for spring barley as well following significant planting delays. As of August 1, harvest was approximately 72 percent complete for wheat and 65 percent for barley. (For more information, contact Mark Lindeman at 202-690-0143.)

Jul 12 2006 | Ukraine Spring Barley Benefits From Favorable Weather
The USDA estimates Ukraine barley production for 2006/07 at 10.7 million tons, up 1.3 million from last month and up 1.7 million from last year. The increase is attributed chiefly to a 20-percent increase in forecast yield following remarkably favorable weather beginning in May and continuing through June. Yield is estimated at 2.14 tons per hectare, up 9 percent from last month and up 3 percent from last year. Spring barley accounts for about 90 percent of Ukraines total barley area. (For more information, contact Mark Lindeman at 202-690-0143.)

Jul 12 2006 | Outstanding Weather Boosts Ukraine Wheat
The USDA estimates Ukraine wheat production for 2006/07 at 13.0 million tons, up 2.0 million from last month, but down 5.7 million from last year. Although severe fall dryness hampered crop establishment and a cool April delayed spring development, ideal weather during May and June enabled winter wheat to recover from extremely unfavorable early-season conditions. Estimated yield stands at 2.41 tons per hectare, up 16 percent from last month, but down 15 percent from last year. Wheat area was increased slightly, from 5.3 to 5.4 million hectares, based on preliminary data indicating that winter losses due to frost were lower than expected. Winter wheat comprises about 90 percent of Ukraines total wheat area. (For more information, contact Mark Lindeman at 202-690-0143.)

Jun 9 2006 | Ukraine Sunflowerseed Area Higher But Production Lower
The USDA estimates Ukraine sunflower area for 2006/07 at a record 4.0 million hectares, up 0.3 million or 8 percent from last year. Production, meanwhile, is forecast to decrease by 6 percent to an estimated 4.4 million tons, due to a decrease in estimated yield from last year's 10-year high. Yield for 2006/07 is estimated at a near-average 1.1 tons per hectare, down 14 percent from last year. Although sunflower profitability has declined in recent years, sunflowers remains the most profitable of the major crops, and area has doubled over the past 10 years. (For more information, contact Mark Lindeman at 202-690-0143.)

Jun 9 2006 | Ukraine Wheat Forecast Higher This Month But Still Lower Than 2005/06
The USDA estimates Ukraine wheat production for 2006/07 at 11.0 million tons, up 10 percent from last month, but down 41 percent from last year. This month-to-month increase is due to higher area forecast at 5.3 million hectares, up 10 percent from last month, but still 19 percent down from last year. Commodity analysts in Ukraine largely attribute the year-to-year drop in area to low wheat prices last fall when farmers needed cash for planting operations. Outstanding May weather was beneficial for winter wheat, which comprises roughly 90 percent of Ukraine's wheat output. Overall production prospects remain poor, however, due chiefly to excessive and persistent fall dryness which contributed to the area reduction and, more importantly, had a significant negative effect on winter crop establishment. Severe January frosts further weakened winter crops, although actual winter-wheat losses are not estimated to be higher than average. Yield is estimated at 2.08 tons per hectare, against 2.85 tons last year and the 5-year average of 2.59 tons. (For more information, contact Mark Lindeman at 202-690-0143.)

May 12 2006 | Ukraine wheat production for 2006/07
Ukraine wheat production for 2006/07 is estimated at 10.0 million tons, down 8.7 million from last year. Area is estimated at 5.2 million hectares, down 1.4 million from last year following a 19-percent decrease in the planted area of winter wheat. Winter wheat comprises an estimated 88 percent of the total wheat area and production for 2006/07. Sown winter wheat area for 2006/07 dropped to 5.1 million hectares from 6.3 million last season due to a combination of dry planting weather and unusually low feed-wheat prices at a time when many farmers desperately needed cash for the fall sowing campaign. Persistent fall drought severely hampered crop establishment throughout the main winter-grain region, and cool spring weather has prevented winter crops from compensating for reduced fall tillering. The Hydromet Center of Ukraine estimated in mid-March that 27 percent of the country's winter wheat area is in unsatisfactory condition (compared to 8 percent last year), due chiefly to unfavorably dry establishment conditions last fall.

May 12 2006 | Northern Hemisphere Wheat Prospects
The European Union's (EU-25) wheat crop is forecast to rebound from last year's below-average harvest of 122.6 million tons, to 125.5 million. Yield is also forecast to rise slightly from last year, to an above-average 5.48 tons per hectare. Area is forecast at 22.9 million hectares, up from last year's 22.5 million. The most noticeable year-to-year change is the much-improved outlook for southwestern Europe. Spain, Portugal, and southern France received above-average precipitation this season, greatly enhancing their yield potential above last year's drought reduced season. Overall, winter was much colder than average in the European Union, but snowcover provided adequate protection for most of the region's autumn-sown crops during dormancy. However, some of the cold events, particularly in the Baltics, eastern Germany, and Hungary, occurred when conditions were possibly conducive to winterkill (very low temperatures and little snowcover). Another potentially limiting factor for the European Union yield prospect for the 2006/07 season is the fall dryness. Areas of northeast Europe, including areas in and around Poland, experienced very dry weather last fall, creating poor soil conditions for planting. Establishment and germination conditions in these areas were likely below average. In addition, the spring "green-up" period began later than normal as lingering snowcover and cold temperatures delayed field work and plant activity. On average, crops are behind normal development by about two weeks. The European Union's largest wheat producer, France, is forecast to produce 39.0 million tons (36.9 million last year). Germany is forecast to produce 23.5 million tons (23.9 million) while Poland's production is forecast to drop to 8.3 million (8.8 million). Hungary's production is also forecast to drop to 4.4 million tons (5.1 million). Spain's much improved wheat crop is forecast at 6.1 million tons, compared to last year's 3.5 million. (For more information, contact Bryan Purcell at 202-690-0138.)The aggregate wheat production for the Balkans (Romania, Bulgaria, Serbia and Montenegro, Croatia, Bosnia-Herzegovina, Macedonia, and Albania) is forecast to drop from last year's above-average 12.3 million ton crop to 10.2 million tons this season. These southeast European countries have experienced two consecutive bumper crops, bolstered by favorable weather. Last year's crop was down from the record 2004/05 crop of 14.5 million tons, but above the average 11.5 million. Aggregate 2006/07 area is estimated to be down 200,000 hectares from last year, and yield is also estimated to decrease, to 2.66 tons per hectare. This is below last year's yield of 3.02 tons per hectare and the 5-year average. Typically, Romania, Bulgaria, and Serbia produce over 85 percent of the Balkan wheat crop, with Romania alone producing over 42 percent . The winter wheat crop in the Balkans (the crop is almost exclusively winter variety) has already experienced a number of severe weather incidents that has likely reduced yield potential. Last autumn, the winter wheat crop was planted late because the 2005/06 summer crops of corn and sunflower remained in the fields well into fall due to heavy rains. Some of the intended winter wheat area likely did not get planted and a portion of some that did likely lacked proper emergence and germination time before winter dormancy began. The 2005-2006 winter was rather severe, with very low temperatures. While much of the area's cropland was insulated by snowcover, some areas, especially in Romania, saw possible winterkill conditions. In addition, spring had a late arrival, delaying crop growth and field work. More recently, an extended pattern of heavy, widespread precipitation has inundated the area with rainfall, sending rivers over their banks, flooding fields, and further preventing and delaying field activities. Romania is forecast to produce 4.3 million tons (5.9 million) from 1.9 million hectares (2.1 million); Serbia is estimated to produce 1.8 million tons (2.0 million) from 550,000 hectares (540,000); and Bulgaria is estimated to produce 2.6 million tons (3.1 million) from 900,000 hectares (1.0 million). (For more information, contact Bryan Purcell at 202-690-0138.)

Mar 10 2006 | Foreign Corn: Smaller Crops for Major Competitors in 2005/06
Foreign corn production in 2005/06 is estimated at 401.6 million tons, similar to last month, but down by 7.5 million from last year due to reduced production from major countries/regions such as European Union (EU), Argentina, and South Africa. For 2005/06, EU output decreased by 5.3 million tons to a total of 48.2 million, due to lower area and drought-reduced yields in France--largest producer in the EU. In Argentina and South Africa, below-average crops of 15.5 million tons and 7.5 million are expected this year, 5 million and 4 million lower than last year's record crops, respectively. The drop in Argentina's crop is due to lower area and unfavorable growing conditions, while in South Africa it is due entirely to lower area. The decrease in area in South Africa is attributable to lower prices, higher stocks, and reduced credit from banks and cooperatives. For this month, increases for India and Romania were almost completely offset by smaller crops in Brazil and Mexico. Larger harvested area in India and higher yields due to better weather in both India and Romania have been major contributors to the increase in production. (For more information, contact Michelle Greenberg at 202-720-7339.)

Dec 1 2005 | Ukraine: Dry Harvest Brings Record Sunflowerseed Production
The USDA estimates Ukrainian sunflowerseed production for 2005/06 at a record 4.6 million tons, up 7 percent from last month and up 51 percent from last year when unusually wet weather reduced output. Area is estimated at 3.6 million hectares, a year-to-year increase of 6 percent. The crop benefited from favorable weather during the growing season, and estimated yield increased by over 40 percent to 1.28 tons per hectare, the highest level in 10 years. Unusually dry harvest weather enabled farmers to gather nearly 100 percent of the planted area. In a typical year, about 4 percent of the area is abandoned. (For more information, contact Mark Lindeman at 202-690-0143.)

Dec 1 2005 | Ukraine: Record Corn Yield for 2005/06
The USDA estimates Ukraine corn production for 2005/06 at 7.2 million tons, up 11 percent from last month, but down 18 percent from last year. Harvested area is estimated at 1.65 million hectares against 2.30 million last year. Favorable weather during the growing season contributed to this year's estimated record yield of 4.36 tons per hectare, and unusually dry harvest weather enabled farmers to harvest 97 percent of the planted area, compared to 93 percent last year and the 10-year average of 92 percent. (For more information, contact Mark Lindeman at 202-690-0143.)

Jul 1 2005 | Ukraine: Wheat Production in 2005/06 Forecast To Surpass Last Year's Level
The USDA estimates Ukraine wheat production at 18.0 million tons, up 1.3 million from last month and up 0.5 million from last year. Yield prospects are favorable following a reversal of the extreme heat and dryness that prevailed in eastern and southern Ukraine in late May. Current crop conditions are especially good in eastern and central Ukraine, two of the country's key wheat-producing regions. Area is estimated at 6.4 million hectares, up 0.1 million from last month and up 0.5 million from last year. The month-to-month increase in estimated area was based on preliminary data from the State Statistical Committee of Ukraine citing below-average winterkill. The committee reported winter losses at 3.6 percent of planted area, compared to 5.5 percent last year and average losses over the past ten years of approximately 11 percent. (For more information, contact Mark Lindeman at 202-690-0143.)

Oct 1 1998 | UKRAINE: GRAIN PRODUCTION REDUCED DUE TO DROUGHT
Ukraine's total grain production (including roughly 1.5 million tons of pulses and miscellaneous grains) for 1998/99 is reduced 1.0 million ton this month to an estimated 27.7 million, against 35.3 million last year. Preliminary harvest results indicate that the impact of persistent drought on the corn crop was severe. Hot, dry weather prevailed throughout July in eastern Ukraine, the country's prime corn region, and the crop advanced through tasseling and silking under conditions of extreme stress. August and September weather provided little relief from the dryness in eastern Ukraine, and corn output is forecast to plunge from 5.3 million tons in 1997/98 to 2.0 million this year. Estimates for other grains are unchanged this month. Wheat production is set at 15.0 million tons, down from 18.4 million last year, and barley production is forecast at 6.3 million, down from 7.4 million in 1997/98. As of September 28, the harvest of wheat, barley, and other small grains was essentially complete, with combined yield down 15 percent from last year. During the growing season, small-grain crops suffered damage from heavy rain in western Ukraine and drought in the east.

Dec 1 1998 | UKRAINE: COARSE GRAIN PRODUCTION REDUCED
Estimated 1998/99 coarse grain output for Ukraine is down 7 percent from last month to 10.3 million tons, based on a recent report from the U.S. agricultural counselor in Kiev. The spring-planted coarse grains were severely affected by hot, dry weather that prevailed over southern and eastern Ukraine as the crops were advancing through the reproductive stage of development. Barley production is estimated at 6.2 million tons, down 0.1 million from last month and down 1.2 million from last year. Rye production is estimated at 1.2 million tons, down 0.2 million from last month and also down 0.2 million from last year. Oat production is estimated at 0.9 million tons, down 0.2 million from last month and down 0.1 million from last year. Corn production is estimated at 1.6 million tons, down from 0.4 million from last month and down 3.7 million from last year.

Feb 1 1999 | UKRAINE: GRAIN PRODUCTION REVISED DOWN
The U.S. agricultural counselor in Kiev revised wheat and coarse grain production for 1998/99 based on preliminary government harvest results. Wheat production is estimated at 14.9 million tons, down 0.1 million from last month and down 3.5 million from last year. The lower wheat harvest is due primarily to a 14-percent year-to-year decrease in estimated area. Also, coarse grain area is down from last year, by 8 percent, and yields were severely affected by hot, dry weather that prevailed over southern and eastern Ukraine as the crops advanced through the reproductive stage of development. Barley production is estimated at 5.9 million tons, down 0.3 million from last month and down 1.5 million from last year. Rye production is estimated at 1.1 million tons, down 0.1 million from last month and down 0.3 million from last year. Oat production is estimated at 0.8 million tons, down 0.2 million from last month and down 0.3 million last year. Corn production is estimated at 2.0 million tons, up 0.4 million from last month, but down 3.3 million from last year.

Feb 1 2000 | Ukraine: Harvest Data Indicates Drop in Wheat, Coarse Grains
Reductions in both area and yield resulted in a 10-percent year-to-year drop in Ukraine total grain production for 1999/2000, according to official preliminary harvest results. Wheat production is estimated at 13.5 million tons, down 0.5 million from last month and down 1.4 million from last year. Corn is increased this month by 0.9 million tons to an estimated 1.7 million as harvest results indicate a dramatic increase in the private sector which now comprises more than half the total corn output. Typically, only a quarter of total corn production is harvested by the private sector. Although estimated barley production increased from 5.9 million tons in 1998/99 to 6.4 million this year, a drop in corn output from 2.3 to 1.7 million tons dragged total coarse grain output down 0.5 million tons from last year to 10.0 million tons.

Jun 1 2000 | Ukraine: Unfavorable Conditions Hurt Wheat Crop
Wheat output for 2000/01 is estimated at 13.0 million tons, down 1.0 million from last month and down 0.5 million from last year. Conditions have been generally unfavorable for winter wheat, which comprises roughly 95 percent of total Ukraine wheat production. Persistent dryness last fall hampered winter-grain establishment, and although conditions improved over the winter, a significant portion of the crop required replanting. Two episodes of sub-freezing weather during May resulted in localized frost damage. Output will be further limited by an increasing lack of fuel, fertilizers, machinery, and other agricultural inputs, which will have a negative impact on yield potential and the harvest campaign.

Jul 1 2000 | Ukraine: Wheat Output down Due to Drought in the South
Wheat production in Ukraine for 2000/01 is estimated at 12.0 million tons, down 1.0 million or 8 percent from last month, and down 1.5 million or 11 percent from last year. Area is estimated at 5.6 million hectares, down 0.2 million or 3 percent from last month, and down 0.3 million or 5 percent from last year. Winter wheat suffered from persistent dryness during establishment last fall, and throughout the spring and early summer, in the southern region. Compounding the negative impact of dryness on potential yield is the continued inadequate application of fertilizers and pesticides.

Aug 1 2000 | Ukraine: Wheat and Barley Yield Prospects Reduced by Wet Weather
Wheat production in Ukraine for 2000/01 is estimated at 11.5 million tons, down 0.5 million or 4 percent from last month, and down 2.0 million or 15 percent from last year. Barley production estimates for 2000/01 increased from 5.5 million tons last month to 6.0 million tons, based on final sown-area statistics released by the State Statistical Committee. The month-to-month barley increase was the result of a 20-percent increase in estimated area to 4.0 million hectares. Yield estimates for both wheat and barley fell from last month because of persistently wet weather during July, which has damaged crops and interrupted harvest operations. Compounding the dryness is continued inadequate application of fertilizers and pesticides, which also will lower yield potential.

Oct 1 2000 | Ukraine: Estimated Wheat Output Down, Barley Up
Ukraine wheat production for 2000/01 is estimated at 11.0 million tons, down 0.5 million or 4 percent from last month and down 2.5 million or 19 percent from last year. Barley production is estimated at 6.5 million tons, up 0.5 million or 8 percent from last month and up 0.1 million or 2 percent from last year. Official reports indicate that persistent rain in July during wheat harvest had a significant negative impact on output, while the barley harvest benefitted from subsequent drier weather.

Nov 1 2000 | Ukraine: Corn Crop up as Farms Gather Bumper Output
Ukraine corn production for 2000/01 is estimated at 3.5 million tons, up 1.5 million or 75 percent from last month and up1.8 million or 106 percent from last year. Official harvest reports indicate that both yield and harvested area are up sharply from last year, despite dryness in eastern Ukraine  the countrys prime corn region  during July and August.

Dec 1 2000 | Ukraine: Good Harvest Weather Boosts Sunflowerseed Output
Ukraine sunflowerseed production for 2000/01 is estimated at 3.7 million tons, up 0.5 million or 16 percent from last month and up 1.0 million or 36 percent from last year. Persistent dryness during October and the first half of November enabled farmers to avoid weather-related harvest delays. Although the estimated yield of 1.32 tons per hectare is the highest since 1995, sunflowerseed yield continues to suffer from below-optimal application of fertilizer and plant-protection chemicals, and yield remains significantly lower than the levels achieved in the late 1980's and early 1990's, when intensive technology was at its peak.

Jan 1 2001 | Ukraine: Bumper Corn Harvest Follows Disastrous Wheat Crop
Ukraine wheat production for 2000/01 is estimated at 10.2 million tons, down 0.8 million or 7 percent from last month and down 3.3 million or 24 percent from last year. Total coarse grain production is estimated at 13.0 million tons, up 0.8 million or 7 percent from last month and up 3.1 million or 31 percent from last year. The increase in coarse grain production was driven by higher output of barley (up 0.4 million tons or 6 percent from last month and up 0.5 million or 8 percent from last year) and corn (up 0.3 million or 9 percent from last month and up 2.1 million or 124 percent from last year). The revisions are based on preliminary harvest data released by the State Statistical Committee of Ukraine. Wheat output suffered from a combination of chronic input shortages and persistently wet harvest weather, and production was only two-thirds of the average of the past five years. Barley production benefitted from generally favorable weather and output was about average. Farmers gathered a bumper corn crop due in part to excellent harvest weather.

May 1 2001 | Ukraine: Higher Wheat Area and Yield Boost Grain Production
Wheat production for 2001/02 is forecast at 16.0 million tons, up from 10.2 million in 2000/01, and area is projected at 7.0 million hectares, the highest level in ten years. Barley production is forecast at 6.0 million tons, down from 6.9 million last year because of a drop in sown area from 3.7 to a projected 3.2 million hectares. Corn production is forecast to be 2.8 million tons, down from 3.8 million in 2000/01, with projected area down 0.3 million hectares to 1.0 million. According to the U.S. agricultural attache in Kiev, grain yield is forecast to increase from last year due to generally favorable weather and a slight increase in fertilizer and pesticide use. Fertilizer supplies remain tight, however, with domestic producers preferring to export their products rather than sell to farmers already in debt whose ability to pay is limited.

Jun 1 2001 | Ukraine: Grains Prospects Up on Higher Area and Yield
Total grain production is forecast at 31.2 million tons, up 3.5 million or 13 percent from last month and up 7.5 million or 32 percent from last year. Wheat production is forecast at 19.0 million, up 3.0 million or 19 percent from last month and up 8.8 million or 86 percent from last years weather reduced crop. The increase in wheat production is the result of several factors: a 35-percent jump in winter wheat area, driven by high wheat prices last fall and low winterkill; favorable weather throughout the growing season; and a modest increase in the amount of fertilizer and herbicide application. Barley production is forecast at 6.5 million tons, up 0.5 million or 8 percent from last month but down 0.4 million or 6 percent from last year due to a year-to-year reduction in area from 3.7 to 3.3 million hectares. Corn production is forecast at 2.8 million tons, unchanged from last month, but down 1.0 million or 26 percent from last years bumper crop.

Jul 1 2001 | Ukraine and Russia: Republics to See Lower Sunflowerseed Production
Sunflowerseed production in Russia for 2001/02 is estimated at 3.2 million tons, down 0.7 million or 18 percent from last year. Area is estimated at 3.9 million hectares, down approximately 0.5 million or 10 percent from last year. Two major factors contributed to the lower planted area: decreased profitability of sunflowerseed, due in part to the high cost of production, and reduced frequency of sunflowers in crop rotations in an effort to reduce soil-borne disease. Unfavorable weather during the planting season, especially in the key North Caucasus region, also contributed to the reduced sown area and hampered early crop development. In Ukraine, sunflowerseed production for 2001/02 is estimated at 2.5 million tons, down 1.0 million or 29 percent from last year. The lower production is attributed chiefly to a 20-percent reduction in sown area, from last years record 2.8 million hectares to an estimated 2.2 million this year. The reduced area stems from the same factors that influenced sown area in Russia: decreased profitability, rotational constraints, and unfavorable planting weather. A resolution lowering the export duty on sunflowerseed from 23 to 17 percent was approved too late to have an impact on the planting of the 2001/02 crop. May and June were excessively wet in Ukraines main sunflower region, and estimated yield is down approximately 10 percent from last year.

Aug 1 2001 | Ukraine: Excessive Heat Reduces Estimated Corn Output
Ukraines corn production for 2001/02 is estimated at 2.8 million tons, down 0.5 million or 15 percent from last month and down 1.0 million or 27 percent from last years bumper crop. Excessively high July temperatures in southern and eastern Ukraine, the countrys key corn region, had a significant impact on yield potential as the crop progressed through its reproductive stage.

Sep 1 2001 | Ukraine and Russia: High Temperatures Slash Sunflowerseed Yield Potential
Ukrainian sunflowerseed production for 2001/02 is estimated at 2.3 million tons, down 0.5 million or 18 percent from last month and down 1.2 million or 34 percent from last year. The sunflower crop fell victim to persistently unfavorable weather this season. Early-season establishment was hampered by excessive wetness and below-normal temperatures. Beginning in July and continuing through August the weather was hot and dry, and the crop advanced through flowering stage under stress. Russian sunflowerseed production for 2001/02 is estimated at 2.7 million tons, down 0.5 million or 16 percent from last month and down 1.2 million or 31 percent from last year. Sunflowers were subject to excessive heat and persistent dryness during July and August, much the same as in Ukraine.

Sep 1 2001 | Ukraine: Excessive Heat Slashes Corn Yields
Ukrainian corn production for 2001/02 is estimated at 2.0 million tons, down 0.8 million or 29 percent from last month and down 1.9 million or 48 percent from last years bumper crop. July and August were marked by excessively high temperatures and persistent dryness in southern and eastern Ukraine, the countrys key corn region. However, Ukrainian wheat production is estimated at 20.0 million tons, up 1.0 million or 5 percent from last month and up 9.8 million or 96 percent from last year. Barley production is estimated at 8.0 million tons, up 1.5 million or 23 percent from last month and up 1.1 million or 16 percent from last year. With wheat harvest essentially complete, the Ministry of Agriculture announced output at 21.4 million tons, prior to cleaning and drying.

Nov 1 2001 | Ukraine: Corn Harvest Better Than Expected
Corn production for 2001/02 is estimated at 3.2 million tons, up 1.2 million or 60 percent from last month but down 0.6 million or 17 percent from last year. Ukraine farmers are gathering a respectable corn crop this year despite excessive heat and persistent dryness that prevailed during July and August. Ukrainian wheat production is estimated at 21.0 million tons, unchanged from last month, but up 10.8 million or 106 percent from last year. Barley production is estimated at 10.0 million tons, unchanged from last month, but up 3.1 million or 46 percent from last year.

May 1 2002 | Ukraine: Grain Area Stable, Yield Forecast to Drop
Ukraine wheat production for 2002/03 is forecast at 18.5 million tons, down 2.8 million or 13 percent from last year. Area is estimated at 7.0 million hectares, nearly unchanged from last years 6.9 million. Barley output is forecast at 9.0 million tons, down 1.2 million or 12 percent from last year, with area estimated to increase by 0.1 million hectares, to 4.0 million. Yields are forecast at slightly above-average levels, based on favorable spring weather, but lower than last years outstanding harvest. Corn production is estimated at 3.7 million tons from 1.2 million hectares, virtually unchanged from last year, when output was reported at a surprisingly high 3.6 million tons despite severe drought in the countrys main production region.

Aug 1 2002 | Ukraine: Excessive Heat in Corn Region
Ukraine corn production for 2002/03 is estimated at 3.0 million tons, down 0.7 million or 19 percent from last month and down 0.6 million or 17 percent from last year. Area is estimated at 1.2 million hectares, up 4 percent from last year. Temperatures in southern and eastern Ukraine  the countrys key corn region  were unusually high during mid-July, as the crop advanced through the heat-sensitive reproductive stage.

Jun 1 1999 | UKRAINE: GRAIN CROPS REDUCED DUE TO COLD WEATHER AND DISEASE
Wheat and coarse grain production are reduced based chiefly on a crop-condition assessment report and revised forecasts from the U.S. agricultural counselor in Kiev. Wheat production is forecast at 14.5 million tons, down 1.0 million from last month and down 0.4 million from last year. Barley production is forecast at 6.1 million tons, down 0.7 million from last month, but up 0.2 million from last year. Corn production is forecast at 3.4 million tons, down 0.3 million from last month, but up 1.1 million from last year. According to the report, an unexpected and significant amount of damage to grain fields in central and southern Ukraine was observed during crop travel. The damage resulted largely from two episodes of sub-freezing temperatures in early May. In addition to the cold-related damage, above-normal incidence of fungal disease was observed which resulted from the lack of a hard freeze during the past winter. Crop vigor continues to be negatively affected by inadequate application of fertilizer and plant-protection chemicals.

Aug 1 1999 | UKRAINE: PRIVATE SECTOR RAISES BARLEY OUTPUT
Ukraines 1999/2000 barley production is estimated at 6.0 million tons, up 1.0 million from last month and up marginally from last year. The increase is based on a larger-than-expected harvest from the private sector. Between 1995 and 1998, the private sector in Ukraine was responsible for an estimated 9 to 11 percent of total grain production, roughly 3.0 to 3.5 million tons. Preliminary harvest results this season indicate that wheat and barley output from the private sector could jump by approximately 1.5 million tons due largely to high export potential. Unfavorable weather and harvest delays resulted in barley yield estimated at 1.71 tons per hectares, slightly above last year, but 17 percent below the 5-year average.

Sep 1 1999 | UKRAINE: PRIVATE SECTOR RAISES BARLEY OUTPUT
Ukraines 1999/2000 barley production is estimated at 6.0 million tons, up 1.0 million from last month and up marginally from last year. The increase is based on a larger-than-expected harvest from the private sector. Between 1995 and 1998, the private sector in Ukraine was responsible for an estimated 9 to 11 percent of total grain production, roughly 3.0 to 3.5 million tons. Preliminary harvest results this season indicate that wheat and barley output from the private sector could jump by approximately 1.5 million tons due largely to high export potential. Unfavorable weather and harvest delays resulted in barley yield estimated at 1.71 tons per hectares, slightly above last year, but 17 percent below the 5-year average.

Nov 1 1999 | UKRAINE: FARMS CHOP CORN FOR SILAGE, GRAIN HARVEST PLUMMETS
Corn production in Ukraine for 1999/2000 is estimated at 0.8 million tons, down 1.2 million from last month and down 1.5 million from last year. According to official reports, less than 0.4 million of the 1.4 million hectares initially planted to corn-for-grain this year will be harvested. As a result of severe drought, a large portion of the crop was chopped for silage rather than harvested for grain.

Jun 1 2005 | Ukraine: Hot, Dry Weather Further Reduces Barley Prospects in 2005/06
The USDA estimates Ukraine barley production at 8.0 million tons, down 1.0 million from last month and down 3.1 million from last year. Area is estimated at 4.0 million hectares, down 0.4 million from last month and down 0.5 million from last year. Excessive heat and dryness prevailed during May in eastern Ukraine, the key production region for spring barley, which comprises roughly 90 percent of the countrys total barley output. Estimated yield was already below average due to weather-related planting delays that had a significant negative effect on early crop development. The barley crop in many regions failed to develop an adequate root system prior to the arrival of hot, dry weather, and likely was unable to access subsurface moisture reserves. (For more information, contact Mark Lindeman at 202-690-0143.)

Jun 1 2005 | Ukraine: Sunflowerseed Production Forecast To Rebound
The USDA estimates Ukrainian sunflowerseed production for 2005/06 at 4.0 million tons, up 30 percent from last year when unusually wet weather during the growing season reduced output. Area is estimated at 3.6 million hectares, a year-to-year increase of only 6 percent, but yield is forecast to increase by 24 percent to a near-average 1.11 tons per hectare. Cool weather delayed the start of sunflower planting this year, but the pace accelerated in late April, and by early May planted area had exceeded last years level. Sunflowerseed remains a popular and profitable crop for Ukrainian farmers. (For more information, contact Mark Lindeman at 202-690-0143.)

Sep 1 2002 | Ukraine: Estimated Wheat Production Second Highest in Nine Years
Ukraine wheat production for 2002/03 is estimated at 21.0 million tons, up 3.5 million or 20 percent from last month, but down 0.3 million or 1 percent from last year. The harvest is complete. Reports from the Ministry of Agriculture indicate that yield was only 2 percent below last years outstanding crop. High yields in western and central Ukraine compensated for lower yields in the south, where persistent dry weather from last fall through late spring hampered winter grain development. Corn production is estimated at 3.0 million tons, unchanged from last month, but down 0.6 million or 17 percent from last year. Excessive heat during mid-July, as the crop was advancing through the tasseling and silking stages, likely reduced yield potential.

Oct 1 2002 | Ukraine's Corn Harvest in Progress; Yield Up From Last Year
Corn production for 2002/03 is estimated at 3.5 million tons, up 0.5 million or 17 percent from last month, but down 0.1 million or 3 percent from last year. According to a report from the U.S. agricultural attaché in Kiev, yields were reported up by as much as 30 percent in some production areas during the early stages of harvest, and yields of 3.3 to 3.7 tons per hectare were reported for central Ukraine. Central Ukraine grows roughly one-third of the crop. Corn harvest typically continues throughout October.

Jun 1 2003 | Ukraine: 2003/04 Wheat Production Forecast Falls
Ukraine wheat production for 2003/04 is estimated at 7.2 million tons, down 2.3 million or 24 percent from last month and down 13.4 million or 65 percent from last year. Area is forecast to drop to 3.5 million hectares, from 6.8 million last year, due to severe winterkill. Weather has been unfavorable throughout the growing season for Ukrainian winter wheat. A wet autumn resulted in planting delays, and the crop was not fully hardened prior to December frosts. Repeated cycles of thawing and re-freezing during February caused widespread ice crusting that destroyed almost all the winter barley and a significant portion of wheat. According to data released May 8, 2003, from the Ministry of Statistics, nearly 60 percent of Ukraines 8 million hectares of sown winter grains were destroyed by the combination of December frost and February ice crusting. Damage was most severe in central and southern Ukraine, the countrys prime winter wheat zone. Spring weather did little to improve the condition of the crop. April and May were persistently dry and May was excessively hot in southern and eastern Ukraine, where nearly 60 percent of the wheat is grown.

Jun 1 2003 | Ukraine: 2003/04 Corn Production Increases
Ukraine corn production for 2003/04 is estimated at 5.5 million tons, up 1.0 million or 22 percent from last month and up 1.3 million or 31 percent from last year. Area is estimated at 1.8 million hectares, up 300,000 from last month. Ukraine farmers planted more corn than usual this spring following severe winter damage to the wheat crop. Much of the area was resown with spring barley, the crop traditionally used for re-seeding, but unusually cool weather hampered early spring sowing. Farmers in some areas were unable to plant spring barley and instead planted summer crops like corn and sunflowers.

Jul 1 2003 | Ukraine: Forecast 2003/04 Wheat and Barley Production Falls Again
Ukraine wheat production for 2003/04 is estimated at 6.0 million tons, down 1.2 million or 17 percent from last month and down 14.6 million, or a staggering 71 percent, from last year. According to data from the State Statistical Committee, 65 percent of Ukraines winter grains were destroyed by the combination of December frosts, February ice crusting, and unfavorable spring weather. Dryness and excessive heat in May reduced the surviving crops yield potential. June rainfall arrived too late to improve crop conditions. Ukraine barley production for 2003/04 is estimated at 8.0 million tons, down 1.2 million, or 13 percent, from last month and down 2.4 million, or 23 percent, from last year. Area is estimated at 5.0 million hectares, the highest level in 10 years, due to extensive replanting of perished winter grains. Yields are estimated at 1.60 tons per hectare, down 36 percent from last year and down 23 percent below the average of the past 5 years, due to excessive heat and persistent dryness in eastern and southern Ukraine. For more information, contact Mark Lindeman at (202) 690-0143.

Aug 1 2003 | Ukraine: 2003/04 Wheat Crop Estimated Still Lower
Ukraine wheat production for 2003/04 is estimated at 5.0 million tons, down 1.0 million or 17 percent from last month and down 15.6 million or 76 percent from last year. Official reports indicate that the harvest of this years disastrous winter wheat crop is complete, with yields running about half last years level. According to the State Statistical Committee, a staggering 65 percent of Ukraines winter grains were destroyed by unfavorable winter and early-spring weather: only about 2.4 million hectares of winter wheat, of the 6.7 million sown, will be harvested. (For more information, contact Mark Lindeman at 202-690-0143)

Oct 1 2003 | Ukraine: 2003/04 Wheat Harvest Virtually Complete, Estimated Production Drops Again
Ukraine wheat production for 2003/04 is estimated at 4.0 million tons, down 1.0 million or 20 percent from last month, and down 16.6 million or 81 percent from last year. By early September, with harvest of both winter and spring wheat essentially complete, farmers had harvested less than 4 million tons. Spring wheat typically comprises less than 5 percent of total grain area and production. Due to excessive damage to winter wheat, the year the share of spring wheat rose to 20 percent. (For more information, contact Mark Lindeman at 202-690-0143.)

Nov 1 2003 | Ukraine: Bumper Corn Crop for 2003/04
Ukraine corn production for 2003/04 is estimated at 6.5 million tons, up 1.0 million or 18 percent from last month, and up 2.3 million or 55 percent from last year. This would be the highest corn crop since 1989/90, when 7.0 million tons were gathered. Planted area for 2003/04 rose significantly this year: almost 2.3 million hectares were planted, compared to about 1.5 million last year. The year-to-year jump was due in part to the replanting of destroyed winter grains with corn (and other summer crops, like sunflowers). The crop benefited from generally good weather throughout the growing season and dry harvest weather. As of November 4, over 6 million tons had been harvested from roughly 75 percent of the sown area. (For more information, contact Mark Lindeman at 202-690-0143.)

Feb 1 2004 | Ukraine: Barley Output Down From Last Year Despite Higher Area
Ukraine barley production for 2003/04 is estimated at 6.85 million tons, down 1.15 million or 14 percent from last month and down 3.50 million or 34 percent from last year. The revised estimate is based on preliminary harvest data released by the State Statistical Committee. Area increased by 11 percent from last year, to 4.6 million hectares, following extensive reseeding of damaged winter crops. Severe drought, however, reduced the yield potential of the spring barley crop, which typically comprises about 90 percent of total barley output in Ukraine. Total barley yield plunged to 1.49 tons per hectare, the lowest level in 40 years. (For more information, contact Mark Lindeman at 202-690-0143.)

May 1 2004 | Despite a 20-percent drop in planted area for winter grains
Despite a 20-percent drop in planted area for winter grains, harvested area is forecast to increase substantially from last year, when severe winter weather and persistent ice crusting during February and March destroyed nearly two-thirds of planted winter grain area. Sown winter grain area for 2004/05 dropped by 1.7 million hectares from last year, to 6.9 million, including a drop in winter wheat from 6.7 to 5.5 million hectares. Wheat typically comprises about 95 percent of Ukraines winter grain area, with the remaining area split between barley (grown in the south) and rye (north and west). According to the U.S. agricultural attaché in Kiev, the reduction in planted area is attributed to several factors: dry conditions during the fall sowing season; a shortage of planting seeds following the disastrous wheat harvest of 2003; and a delay in the harvest of sunflowers and corn, which interfered with winter grain planting. The 2004/05 crop benefited from relatively mild winter weather, with less than 5 percent of sown winter crop area  considerably less than average  destroyed over the winter. A brief early-April cold snap in southern Ukraine damaged winter grains, especially barley, in the Crimean Peninsula, but overall winterkill in Ukraine is forecast at no more than 5 percent of sown area. Recent precipitation reversed localized dryness in parts of southern and eastern Ukraine, and crop conditions as of early May were generally favorable throughout the country.

Jun 1 2004 | Ukraine: Estimated Corn Area Reaches 15-Year High
The USDA estimates Ukraine corn production for 2004/05 at 6.6 million tons, up 1.6 million or 32 percent from last month, but down 0.3 million or 4 percent from last year. Area for 2004/05 is estimated at 2.2 million hectares, up 0.6 million from last month and up 0.2 million or 10 percent from last year. According to data from the State Statistical Committee, Ukraine farmers planted nearly 2.5 million hectares of corn, and harvested area is forecast at 2.2 million hectares. This marks the highest corn area since 1988/89, when 2.3 million hectares were harvested. (For more information, contact Mark Lindeman at 202-690-0143.)

Jul 1 2004 | Ukraine: Above-Average Yield Prospects for Barley
The USDA estimates Ukrainian barley production for 2004/05 at 9.5 million tons, up 0.5 million or 6 percent from last month and up 2.7 million or 39 percent from last year when severe drought slashed yield. Current yield prospects are generally favorable for spring barley, which typically accounts for about 90 percent of total Ukraine barley output. Crops in the main production regions of southern and eastern Ukraine benefited from abundant June precipitation. (For more information, contact Mark Lindeman at 202-690-0143.)

Aug 1 2004 | Ukraine: Harvest Weather Improves, Above-Average Wheat Crop Forecast
The USDA estimates Ukraine wheat production for 2004/05 at 16.0 million tons, up 1.0 million or 7 percent from last month and up 12.4 million or 344 percent from last year, when severe weather destroyed Ukraines winter wheat crop and total wheat output plunged to 3.6 million tons. Wet weather in early July hampered early harvest work in southern Ukraine, but progress accelerated sharply in late July. According to data from the State Statistical Committee, the wheat harvest was nearly 60 percent complete by the beginning of August. Yield to date for total grain (which in early August chiefly reflects wheat and barley yields) is reported at 3.0 tons per hectare. This nearly matches the bumper-crop years of 2001/02 and 2002/03, when wheat production reached 21.3 and 20.6 million tons, respectively. Wheat production for 2004/05, however, is unlikely to approach these levels due to a 17-percent drop in area, to 5.7 million hectares. (For more information, contact Mark Lindeman at 202-690-0143.)

Sep 1 2004 | Ukraine: Bumper Harvests for Wheat and Barley
The USDA estimates Ukraine wheat production for 2004/05 at 17.5 million tons, up 1.5 million from last month and up 386 percent from last year, when severe winter weather and persistent spring drought destroyed Ukraines winter wheat crop and total wheat output plunged to 3.6 million tons. Barley production is estimated at 11.5 million tons, up 1.0 million from last month and up 4.6 million from last year. Unusually high precipitation throughout the growing season boosted yield potential of winter wheat and early spring grains. Despite occasional harvest delays caused by continued wet weather during July and August, farmers were able to eventually harvest 98 percent of the area planted to wheat and 97 percent of the barley. Lower sown area will prevent 2004/05 production from reaching the levels achieved in 2001/02 and 2002/03 (21.3 and 20.6 million tons, respectively). Estimated barley output is the highest since 1994/95. Meanwhile, corn production is estimated at 6.6 million tons. The cool, wet weather has resulted in vigorous vegetative growth and high yield potential, but has also delayed crop development. Final output will depend in part on harvest weather. (For more information, contact Mark Lindeman at 202-690-0143.)

Oct 1 2004 | Ukraine: Sunflowerseed Yield Drops Below Average
The USDA estimates Ukraine sunflowerseed production for 2004/05 at 3.2 million tons, down 0.4 million from last month and down 1.1 million from last years record. The growing season was marked by cool, wet weather, and harvest-progress reports indicate that final yield is unlikely to exceed 1.0 ton per hectare against an average of 1.09 tons per hectare. Area for 2004/05 is estimated at 3.3 million hectares, second only to last years record 3.8 million. Demand for oilseeds is high and sunflowerseed remains one of Ukraines most profitable crops. (For more information, contact Mark Lindeman at 202-690-0143.)

Dec 1 2004 | Ukraine: Highest Corn Harvest Since 1988
Ukrainian corn production for 2004/05 is estimated at 8.0 million tons, up 1.4 million from last month and up 1.2 million from last year. This years harvest is the highest since 1988/89, when output reached 8.6 million tons. The estimated yield of 4.0 tons per hectare narrowly exceeds the previous record of 3.96 tons per hectare recorded in 1997/98. The crop benefited from a cool, wet growing season and suitable harvest weather. (For more information, contact Mark Lindeman at 202-690-0143.)

Jan 1 2005 | Ukraine: Highest Corn Output in Over Forty Years
The USDA estimates Ukraine corn production for 2004/05 at 8.8 million tons, up 0.8 million from last month and up 2.0 million from last year. This years harvest is the highest since 1962/63, when output reached 10.1 million tons. Harvested area is estimated at 2.3 million hectares, up from 2.0 million last year. The crop benefited from a cool, wet growing season that boosted potential yield but delayed crop development. Despite the late start to the harvest campaign, favorable weather enabled farmers to harvest nearly 90 percent of the planted area, against an average of 92 percent. (For more information, contact Mark Lindeman at 202-690-0143.)

May 1 2005 | Grain production in Moldova is forecast at 2.2 million tons
Grain production in Moldova is forecast at 2.2 million tons (against 2.6 million last year), including 0.8 (0.9) million wheat and 1.0 (1.3) million corn for 2005/06. Winter wheat was reportedly sown on 0.3 million hectares. Grain yields are forecast to return to more typical levels following last years reported bumper harvest

May 1 2005 | In Belarus, grain production for 2005/06 is forecast at 6.3 (7.0) million tons
In Belarus, grain production for 2005/06 is forecast at 6.3 (7.0) million tons, including 1.3 (1.4) million wheat, 1.6 (2.0) million barley, and 1.4 (1.4) million rye. Winter grain area is reported at 1.2 million hectares, about the same as last year. Spring grains are planted during April and May. Grain yields are forecast to return to more typical levels following last years reported bumper harvest.

May 1 2005 | Ukraines grain production for 2005/06 is forecast at 35.6 million tons
Ukraines grain production for 2005/06 is forecast at 35.6 million tons (41.5 million last year), including 16.7 (17.5) million wheat, 9.0 (11.1) million barley, and 6.5 (8.8) million corn. Total grain area is forecast at 14.9 (14.8) million hectares, including 6.3 (5.9) million wheat, 4.4 (4.5) million barley, and 2.0 (2.3) million corn. Ukraine planted 7.5 (6.9) million hectares of winter grains for 2005/06, including 6.3 (5.9) million wheat. Early prospects for winter grain yields are not bad, although unseasonably low March temperatures delayed the resumption of vegetative growth for winter grains, which could slightly reduce potential yield. (Note that the highest winter wheat yields achieved over the past 10 years have occurred during years when early spring weather was warm and winter grains broke dormancy relatively early.) Cool March weather notwithstanding, yield depends largely on late spring and early summer weather. Preliminary estimates indicate that 8 to 10 percent of the sown winter grain area will need to be replanted, which would be higher than last years 5 percent but lower than the 10-year average of 11 percent. Agricultural officials also report that winter grains in some regions are in a weakened condition due to the unfavorable effect of a period of unseasonably warm weather in late December and early January, which reportedly caused crops in parts of southern Ukraine to break dormancy. Average winterkill over the past 10 years is about 11 percent. Spring grain planting in Ukraine typically begins in mid-to-late March and continues through April, but unseasonably cool March weather delayed the launch of the sowing campaign this year. As of March 23, fewer than 0.1 million hectares of early spring grains (chiefly barley) had been planted compared to nearly 2 million hectares by the same date last year. Although planting accelerated during mid-April, many spring barley fields were sown beyond the optimum planting time. Typically, years marked by significant delays in spring planting also result in below-average production of spring barley. Ukraine harvested bumper corn crops in 2003 and 2004 due to a combination of favorable weather and a jump in planted area. Corn is the last of the major crops to be planted, usually from late April until mid-May. (For more information, contact Mark Lindeman at 202-690-0143.)


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